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(itstool) path: sect2/programlisting
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The customers are completely isolated from each other and the full <systemitem class="netmask">/24</systemitem> address range can be allocated without subnetting.
The number of unique source <acronym>MAC</acronym> addresses behind an interface can be limited. Once the limit is reached, packets with unknown source addresses are dropped until an existing host cache entry expires or is removed.
The following example sets the maximum number of Ethernet devices for <systemitem class="fqdomainname">CustomerA</systemitem> on <literal>vlan100</literal> to 10:
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>ifconfig bridge0 ifmaxaddr vlan100 10</userinput>
Bridge interfaces also support monitor mode, where the packets are discarded after <citerefentry><refentrytitle>bpf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> processing and are not processed or forwarded further. This can be used to multiplex the input of two or more interfaces into a single <citerefentry><refentrytitle>bpf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> stream. This is useful for reconstructing the traffic for network taps that transmit the RX/TX signals out through two separate interfaces. For example, to read the input from four network interfaces as one stream:
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>ifconfig bridge0 addm fxp0 addm fxp1 addm fxp2 addm fxp3 monitor up</userinput>
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>tcpdump -i bridge0</userinput>
<acronym>SNMP</acronym> Monitoring
The bridge interface and <acronym>STP</acronym> parameters can be monitored via <citerefentry><refentrytitle>bsnmpd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> which is included in the FreeBSD base system. The exported bridge <acronym>MIB</acronym>s conform to <acronym>IETF</acronym> standards so any <acronym>SNMP</acronym> client or monitoring package can be used to retrieve the data.
To enable monitoring on the bridge, uncomment this line in <filename>/etc/snmpd.config</filename> by removing the beginning <literal>#</literal> symbol:
begemotSnmpdModulePath."bridge" = "/usr/lib/snmp_bridge.so"
Other configuration settings, such as community names and access lists, may need to be modified in this file. See <citerefentry><refentrytitle>bsnmpd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> and <citerefentry><refentrytitle>snmp_bridge</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum></citerefentry> for more information. Once these edits are saved, add this line to <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>:
bsnmpd_enable="YES"
Then, start <citerefentry><refentrytitle>bsnmpd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>:
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>service bsnmpd start</userinput>
The following examples use the <application>Net-SNMP</application> software (<package>net-mgmt/net-snmp</package>) to query a bridge from a client system. The <package>net-mgmt/bsnmptools</package> port can also be used. From the <acronym>SNMP</acronym> client which is running <application>Net-SNMP</application>, add the following lines to <filename>$HOME/.snmp/snmp.conf</filename> in order to import the bridge <acronym>MIB</acronym> definitions:
mibdirs +/usr/share/snmp/mibs
mibs +BRIDGE-MIB:RSTP-MIB:BEGEMOT-MIB:BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB
To monitor a single bridge using the IETF BRIDGE-MIB (RFC4188):
<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>snmpwalk -v 2c -c public bridge1.example.com mib-2.dot1dBridge</userinput>
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dBaseBridgeAddress.0 = STRING: 66:fb:9b:6e:5c:44
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dBaseNumPorts.0 = INTEGER: 1 ports
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpTimeSinceTopologyChange.0 = Timeticks: (189959) 0:31:39.59 centi-seconds
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpTopChanges.0 = Counter32: 2
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpDesignatedRoot.0 = Hex-STRING: 80 00 00 01 02 4B D4 50
...
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpPortState.3 = INTEGER: forwarding(5)
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpPortEnable.3 = INTEGER: enabled(1)
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpPortPathCost.3 = INTEGER: 200000
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpPortDesignatedRoot.3 = Hex-STRING: 80 00 00 01 02 4B D4 50
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpPortDesignatedCost.3 = INTEGER: 0
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpPortDesignatedBridge.3 = Hex-STRING: 80 00 00 01 02 4B D4 50
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpPortDesignatedPort.3 = Hex-STRING: 03 80
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpPortForwardTransitions.3 = Counter32: 1
RSTP-MIB::dot1dStpVersion.0 = INTEGER: rstp(2)
The <literal>dot1dStpTopChanges.0</literal> value is two, indicating that the <acronym>STP</acronym> bridge topology has changed twice. A topology change means that one or more links in the network have changed or failed and a new tree has been calculated. The <literal>dot1dStpTimeSinceTopologyChange.0</literal> value will show when this happened.
To monitor multiple bridge interfaces, the private BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB can be used:
<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>snmpwalk -v 2c -c public bridge1.example.com</userinput>
enterprises.fokus.begemot.begemotBridge
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeBaseName."bridge0" = STRING: bridge0
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeBaseName."bridge2" = STRING: bridge2
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeBaseAddress."bridge0" = STRING: e:ce:3b:5a:9e:13
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeBaseAddress."bridge2" = STRING: 12:5e:4d:74:d:fc
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeBaseNumPorts."bridge0" = INTEGER: 1
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeBaseNumPorts."bridge2" = INTEGER: 1
...
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeStpTimeSinceTopologyChange."bridge0" = Timeticks: (116927) 0:19:29.27 centi-seconds
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeStpTimeSinceTopologyChange."bridge2" = Timeticks: (82773) 0:13:47.73 centi-seconds
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeStpTopChanges."bridge0" = Counter32: 1
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeStpTopChanges."bridge2" = Counter32: 1
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeStpDesignatedRoot."bridge0" = Hex-STRING: 80 00 00 40 95 30 5E 31
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeStpDesignatedRoot."bridge2" = Hex-STRING: 80 00 00 50 8B B8 C6 A9
To change the bridge interface being monitored via the <literal>mib-2.dot1dBridge</literal> subtree:
<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>snmpset -v 2c -c private bridge1.example.com</userinput>
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeDefaultBridgeIf.0 s bridge2
Link Aggregation and Failover
<primary>lagg</primary>
<primary>failover</primary>
<primary><acronym>FEC</acronym></primary>
<primary><acronym>LACP</acronym></primary>
<primary>loadbalance</primary>
<primary>roundrobin</primary>
FreeBSD provides the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>lagg</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> interface which can be used to aggregate multiple network interfaces into one virtual interface in order to provide failover and link aggregation. Failover allows traffic to continue to flow as long as at least one aggregated network interface has an established link. Link aggregation works best on switches which support <acronym>LACP</acronym>, as this protocol distributes traffic bi-directionally while responding to the failure of individual links.

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Source information

Source string comment
(itstool) path: sect2/programlisting
Flags
no-wrap, read-only
Source string location
book.translate.xml:65535
String age
a year ago
Source string age
a year ago
Translation file
books/handbook.pot, string 11028