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This section describes a number of steps to help troubleshoot common wireless networking problems.
If the access point is not listed when scanning, check that the configuration has not limited the wireless device to a limited set of channels.
If the device cannot associate with an access point, verify that the configuration matches the settings on the access point. This includes the authentication scheme and any security protocols. Simplify the configuration as much as possible. If using a security protocol such as <acronym>WPA</acronym> or <acronym>WEP</acronym>, configure the access point for open authentication and no security to see if traffic will pass.
Debugging support is provided by <citerefentry><refentrytitle>wpa_supplicant</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>. Try running this utility manually with <option>-dd</option> and look at the system logs.
Once the system can associate with the access point, diagnose the network configuration using tools like <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ping</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>.
There are many lower-level debugging tools. Debugging messages can be enabled in the 802.11 protocol support layer using <citerefentry><refentrytitle>wlandebug</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>. For example, to enable console messages related to scanning for access points and the 802.11 protocol handshakes required to arrange communication:
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>wlandebug -i <replaceable>wlan0</replaceable> +scan+auth+debug+assoc</userinput>
net.wlan.0.debug: 0 =&gt; 0xc80000&lt;assoc,auth,scan&gt;
Many useful statistics are maintained by the 802.11 layer and <command>wlanstats</command>, found in <filename>/usr/src/tools/tools/net80211</filename>, will dump this information. These statistics should display all errors identified by the 802.11 layer. However, some errors are identified in the device drivers that lie below the 802.11 layer so they may not show up. To diagnose device-specific problems, refer to the drivers' documentation.
If the above information does not help to clarify the problem, submit a problem report and include output from the above tools.
USB Tethering
Many cellphones provide the option to share their data connection over USB (often called "tethering"). This feature uses one of <acronym>RNDIS</acronym>, <acronym>CDC</acronym>, or a custom <trademark class="registered">Apple</trademark> <trademark class="registered">iPhone</trademark>/<trademark class="registered">iPad</trademark> protocol.
<trademark>Android</trademark> devices generally use the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>urndis</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> driver.
<trademark class="registered">Apple</trademark> devices use the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ipheth</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> driver.
Older devices will often use the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>cdce</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> driver.
Before attaching a device, load the appropriate driver into the kernel:
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>kldload if_urndis</userinput>
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>kldload if_cdce</userinput>
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>kldload if_ipheth</userinput>
Once the device is attached <literal>ue</literal><replaceable>0</replaceable> will be available for use like a normal network device. Be sure that the <quote>USB tethering</quote> option is enabled on the device.
To make this change permanent and load the driver as a module at boot time, place the appropriate line of the following in <filename>/boot/loader.conf</filename>:
<personname> <firstname>Pav</firstname> <surname>Lucistnik</surname> </personname> <contrib>Written by </contrib> <email></email>
Bluetooth is a wireless technology for creating personal networks operating in the 2.4 GHz unlicensed band, with a range of 10 meters. Networks are usually formed ad-hoc from portable devices such as cellular phones, handhelds, and laptops. Unlike Wi-Fi wireless technology, Bluetooth offers higher level service profiles, such as <acronym>FTP</acronym>-like file servers, file pushing, voice transport, serial line emulation, and more.
This section describes the use of a <acronym>USB</acronym> Bluetooth dongle on a FreeBSD system. It then describes the various Bluetooth protocols and utilities.
Loading Bluetooth Support
The Bluetooth stack in FreeBSD is implemented using the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>netgraph</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> framework. A broad variety of Bluetooth <acronym>USB</acronym> dongles is supported by <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ng_ubt</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry>. Broadcom BCM2033 based Bluetooth devices are supported by the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ubtbcmfw</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> and <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ng_ubt</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> drivers. The 3Com Bluetooth PC Card 3CRWB60-A is supported by the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ng_bt3c</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> driver. Serial and UART based Bluetooth devices are supported by <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sio</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry>, <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ng_h4</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry>, and <citerefentry><refentrytitle>hcseriald</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>.
Before attaching a device, determine which of the above drivers it uses, then load the driver. For example, if the device uses the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ng_ubt</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> driver:
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>kldload ng_ubt</userinput>
If the Bluetooth device will be attached to the system during system startup, the system can be configured to load the module at boot time by adding the driver to <filename>/boot/loader.conf</filename>:


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(itstool) path: sect1/para
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a year ago
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books/handbook.pot, string 10848