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How to create and manage users and groups on FreeBSD.
How <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark> file permissions and FreeBSD file flags work.
The default FreeBSD file system layout.
The FreeBSD disk organization.
How to mount and unmount file systems.
What processes, daemons, and signals are.
What a shell is, and how to change the default login environment.
How to use basic text editors.
What devices and device nodes are.
How to read manual pages for more information.
Virtual Consoles and Terminals
<primary>virtual consoles</primary>
Unless FreeBSD has been configured to automatically start a graphical environment during startup, the system will boot into a command line login prompt, as seen in this example:
FreeBSD/amd64 ( (ttyv0)

The first line contains some information about the system. The <literal>amd64</literal> indicates that the system in this example is running a 64-bit version of FreeBSD. The hostname is <systemitem></systemitem>, and <filename>ttyv0</filename> indicates that this is the <quote>system console</quote>. The second line is the login prompt.
Since FreeBSD is a multiuser system, it needs some way to distinguish between different users. This is accomplished by requiring every user to log into the system before gaining access to the programs on the system. Every user has a unique name <quote>username</quote> and a personal <quote>password</quote>.
To log into the system console, type the username that was configured during system installation, as described in <xref linkend="bsdinstall-addusers"/>, and press <keycap>Enter</keycap>. Then enter the password associated with the username and press <keycap>Enter</keycap>. The password is <emphasis>not echoed</emphasis> for security reasons.
Once the correct password is input, the message of the day (<acronym>MOTD</acronym>) will be displayed followed by a command prompt. Depending upon the shell that was selected when the user was created, this prompt will be a <literal>#</literal>, <literal>$</literal>, or <literal>%</literal> character. The prompt indicates that the user is now logged into the FreeBSD system console and ready to try the available commands.
Virtual Consoles
While the system console can be used to interact with the system, a user working from the command line at the keyboard of a FreeBSD system will typically instead log into a virtual console. This is because system messages are configured by default to display on the system console. These messages will appear over the command or file that the user is working on, making it difficult to concentrate on the work at hand.
By default, FreeBSD is configured to provide several virtual consoles for inputting commands. Each virtual console has its own login prompt and shell and it is easy to switch between virtual consoles. This essentially provides the command line equivalent of having several windows open at the same time in a graphical environment.
The key combinations <keycombo><keycap>Alt</keycap><keycap>F1</keycap></keycombo> through <keycombo><keycap>Alt</keycap><keycap>F8</keycap></keycombo> have been reserved by FreeBSD for switching between virtual consoles. Use <keycombo><keycap>Alt</keycap><keycap>F1</keycap></keycombo> to switch to the system console (<filename>ttyv0</filename>), <keycombo><keycap>Alt</keycap><keycap>F2</keycap></keycombo> to access the first virtual console (<filename>ttyv1</filename>), <keycombo><keycap>Alt</keycap><keycap>F3</keycap></keycombo> to access the second virtual console (<filename>ttyv2</filename>), and so on. When using <application>Xorg</application> as a graphical console, the combination becomes <keycombo> <keycap>Ctrl</keycap><keycap>Alt</keycap><keycap>F1</keycap> </keycombo> to return to a text-based virtual console.
When switching from one console to the next, FreeBSD manages the screen output. The result is an illusion of having multiple virtual screens and keyboards that can be used to type commands for FreeBSD to run. The programs that are launched in one virtual console do not stop running when the user switches to a different virtual console.
Refer to <citerefentry><refentrytitle>kbdcontrol</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>, <citerefentry><refentrytitle>vidcontrol</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>, <citerefentry><refentrytitle>atkbd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry>, <citerefentry><refentrytitle>syscons</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry>, and <citerefentry><refentrytitle>vt</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> for a more technical description of the FreeBSD console and its keyboard drivers.
In FreeBSD, the number of available virtual consoles is configured in this section of <filename>/etc/ttys</filename>:
# name getty type status comments
ttyv0 "/usr/libexec/getty Pc" xterm on secure
# Virtual terminals
ttyv1 "/usr/libexec/getty Pc" xterm on secure
ttyv2 "/usr/libexec/getty Pc" xterm on secure
ttyv3 "/usr/libexec/getty Pc" xterm on secure
ttyv4 "/usr/libexec/getty Pc" xterm on secure
ttyv5 "/usr/libexec/getty Pc" xterm on secure
ttyv6 "/usr/libexec/getty Pc" xterm on secure
ttyv7 "/usr/libexec/getty Pc" xterm on secure
ttyv8 "/usr/X11R6/bin/xdm -nodaemon" xterm off secure
To disable a virtual console, put a comment symbol (<literal>#</literal>) at the beginning of the line representing that virtual console. For example, to reduce the number of available virtual consoles from eight to four, put a <literal>#</literal> in front of the last four lines representing virtual consoles <filename>ttyv5</filename> through <filename>ttyv8</filename>. <emphasis>Do not</emphasis> comment out the line for the system console <filename>ttyv0</filename>. Note that the last virtual console (<filename>ttyv8</filename>) is used to access the graphical environment if <application>Xorg</application> has been installed and configured as described in <xref linkend="x11"/>.
For a detailed description of every column in this file and the available options for the virtual consoles, refer to <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ttys</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>.
Single User Mode


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Unchanged translation: Chinese (Simplified) (zh_CN), Portuguese (Brazil), Spanish
Has been translated: Turkish (tr_TR), Spanish


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Source string comment
(itstool) path: sect1/screen
no-wrap, read-only
Source string location
String age
a year ago
Source string age
a year ago
Translation file
books/handbook.pot, string 863