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(itstool) path: sect1/para
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Multi-purpose log, temporary, transient, and spool files. A memory-based file system is sometimes mounted at <filename>/var</filename>. This can be automated using the varmfs-related variables in <citerefentry><refentrytitle>rc.conf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry> or with an entry in <filename>/etc/fstab</filename>; refer to <citerefentry><refentrytitle>mdmfs</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> for details.
Miscellaneous system log files.
User mailbox files.
Miscellaneous printer and mail system spooling directories.
Temporary files which are usually preserved across a system reboot, unless <filename>/var</filename> is a memory-based file system.
NIS maps.
Disk Organization
The smallest unit of organization that FreeBSD uses to find files is the filename. Filenames are case-sensitive, which means that <filename>readme.txt</filename> and <filename>README.TXT</filename> are two separate files. FreeBSD does not use the extension of a file to determine whether the file is a program, document, or some other form of data.
Files are stored in directories. A directory may contain no files, or it may contain many hundreds of files. A directory can also contain other directories, allowing a hierarchy of directories within one another in order to organize data.
Files and directories are referenced by giving the file or directory name, followed by a forward slash, <literal>/</literal>, followed by any other directory names that are necessary. For example, if the directory <filename>foo</filename> contains a directory <filename>bar</filename> which contains the file <filename>readme.txt</filename>, the full name, or <firstterm>path</firstterm>, to the file is <filename>foo/bar/readme.txt</filename>. Note that this is different from <trademark class="registered">Windows</trademark> which uses <literal>\</literal> to separate file and directory names. FreeBSD does not use drive letters, or other drive names in the path. For example, one would not type <filename>c:\foo\bar\readme.txt</filename> on FreeBSD.
Directories and files are stored in a file system. Each file system contains exactly one directory at the very top level, called the <firstterm>root directory</firstterm> for that file system. This root directory can contain other directories. One file system is designated the <firstterm>root file system</firstterm> or <literal>/</literal>. Every other file system is <firstterm>mounted</firstterm> under the root file system. No matter how many disks are on the FreeBSD system, every directory appears to be part of the same disk.
Consider three file systems, called <literal>A</literal>, <literal>B</literal>, and <literal>C</literal>. Each file system has one root directory, which contains two other directories, called <literal>A1</literal>, <literal>A2</literal> (and likewise <literal>B1</literal>, <literal>B2</literal> and <literal>C1</literal>, <literal>C2</literal>).
Call <literal>A</literal> the root file system. If <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ls</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> is used to view the contents of this directory, it will show two subdirectories, <literal>A1</literal> and <literal>A2</literal>. The directory tree looks like this:
_ external ref='basics/example-dir1' md5='__failed__'
+--- A1
`--- A2
A file system must be mounted on to a directory in another file system. When mounting file system <literal>B</literal> on to the directory <literal>A1</literal>, the root directory of <literal>B</literal> replaces <literal>A1</literal>, and the directories in <literal>B</literal> appear accordingly:
_ external ref='basics/example-dir2' md5='__failed__'
+--- A1
| |
| +--- B1
| |
| `--- B2
`--- A2
Any files that are in the <literal>B1</literal> or <literal>B2</literal> directories can be reached with the path <filename>/A1/B1</filename> or <filename>/A1/B2</filename> as necessary. Any files that were in <filename>/A1</filename> have been temporarily hidden. They will reappear if <literal>B</literal> is <firstterm>unmounted</firstterm> from <literal>A</literal>.
If <literal>B</literal> had been mounted on <literal>A2</literal> then the diagram would look like this:
_ external ref='basics/example-dir3' md5='__failed__'
+--- A1
`--- A2
+--- B1
`--- B2
and the paths would be <filename>/A2/B1</filename> and <filename>/A2/B2</filename> respectively.
File systems can be mounted on top of one another. Continuing the last example, the <literal>C</literal> file system could be mounted on top of the <literal>B1</literal> directory in the <literal>B</literal> file system, leading to this arrangement:
_ external ref='basics/example-dir4' md5='__failed__'


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XML markup: Chinese (Simplified) (zh_CN)
XML syntax: Turkish (tr_TR)
Has been translated: Turkish (tr_TR)


Source information

Source string comment
(itstool) path: sect1/para
Source string location
String age
a year ago
Source string age
a year ago
Translation file
books/handbook.pot, string 1232