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Applications which provide documentation will install it into <filename>/usr/local/share/doc</filename> and many applications also install manual pages. This documentation should be consulted before continuing.
Some applications run services which must be added to <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> before starting the application. These applications usually install a startup script in <filename>/usr/local/etc/rc.d</filename>. See <link linkend="configtuning-starting-services">Starting Services</link> for more information.
By design, applications do not run their startup script upon installation, nor do they run their stop script upon deinstallation or upgrade. This decision is left to the individual system administrator.
Users of <citerefentry><refentrytitle>csh</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> should run <command>rehash</command> to rebuild the known binary list in the shells <envar>PATH</envar>.
Use <command>pkg info</command> to determine which files, man pages, and binaries were installed with the application.
Dealing with Broken Ports
When a port does not build or install, try the following:
Search to see if there is a fix pending for the port in the <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/support.html">Problem Report database</link>. If so, implementing the proposed fix may fix the issue.
Ask the maintainer of the port for help. Type <command>make maintainer</command> in the ports skeleton or read the port's <filename>Makefile</filename> to find the maintainer's email address. Remember to include the <literal>$FreeBSD:</literal> line from the port's <filename>Makefile</filename> and the output leading up to the error in the email to the maintainer.
Some ports are not maintained by an individual but instead by a group maintainer represented by a <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/mailing-list-faq/article.html">mailing list</link>. Many, but not all, of these addresses look like <email role="nolink">freebsd-<replaceable>listname</replaceable>@FreeBSD.org</email>. Please take this into account when sending an email.
In particular, ports maintained by <email role="nolink">ports@FreeBSD.org</email> are not maintained by a specific individual. Instead, any fixes and support come from the general community who subscribe to that mailing list. More volunteers are always needed!
If there is no response to the email, use Bugzilla to submit a bug report using the instructions in <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/problem-reports/article.html">Writing FreeBSD Problem Reports</link>.
Fix it! The <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/porters-handbook/index.html">Porter's Handbook</link> includes detailed information on the ports infrastructure so that you can fix the occasional broken port or even submit your own!
Install the package instead of the port using the instructions in <xref linkend="pkgng-intro"/>.
The X Window System
An installation of FreeBSD using <application>bsdinstall</application> does not automatically install a graphical user interface. This chapter describes how to install and configure <application>Xorg</application>, which provides the open source X Window System used to provide a graphical environment. It then describes how to find and install a desktop environment or window manager.
Users who prefer an installation method that automatically configures the <application>Xorg</application> should refer to <link xlink:href="https://www.furybsd.org">FuryBSD</link>, <link xlink:href="https://ghostbsd.org">GhostBSD</link> or <link xlink:href="https://www.midnightbsd.org">MidnightBSD</link>.
For more information on the video hardware that <application>Xorg</application> supports, refer to the <link xlink:href="http://www.x.org/">x.org</link> website.
The various components of the X Window System, and how they interoperate.
How to install and configure <application>Xorg</application>.
How to install and configure several window managers and desktop environments.
How to use <trademark class="registered">TrueType</trademark> fonts in <application>Xorg</application>.
How to set up your system for graphical logins (<application>XDM</application>).
Know how to install additional third-party software as described in <xref linkend="ports"/>.
Terminology
While it is not necessary to understand all of the details of the various components in the X Window System and how they interact, some basic knowledge of these components can be useful.
X server
X was designed from the beginning to be network-centric, and adopts a <quote>client-server</quote> model. In this model, the <quote>X server</quote> runs on the computer that has the keyboard, monitor, and mouse attached. The server's responsibility includes tasks such as managing the display, handling input from the keyboard and mouse, and handling input or output from other devices such as a tablet or a video projector. This confuses some people, because the X terminology is exactly backward to what they expect. They expect the <quote>X server</quote> to be the big powerful machine down the hall, and the <quote>X client</quote> to be the machine on their desk.
X client
Each X application, such as <application>XTerm</application> or <application>Firefox</application>, is a <quote>client</quote>. A client sends messages to the server such as <quote>Please draw a window at these coordinates</quote>, and the server sends back messages such as <quote>The user just clicked on the OK button</quote>.
In a home or small office environment, the X server and the X clients commonly run on the same computer. It is also possible to run the X server on a less powerful computer and to run the X applications on a more powerful system. In this scenario, the communication between the X client and server takes place over the network.

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Source string comment
(itstool) path: sect1/para
Flags
read-only
Source string location
book.translate.xml:10968
String age
a year ago
Source string age
a year ago
Translation file
books/handbook.pot, string 1836