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<primary>installation</primary>
There are several different ways of getting FreeBSD to run, depending on the environment. Those are:
Virtual Machine images, to download and import on a virtual environment of choice. These can be downloaded from the <link xlink:href="https://www.freebsd.org/where.html">Download FreeBSD</link> page. There are images for KVM (<quote>qcow2</quote>), VMWare (<quote>vmdk</quote>), Hyper-V (<quote>vhd</quote>), and raw device images that are universally supported. These are not installation images, but rather the preconfigured (<quote>already installed</quote>) instances, ready to run and perform post-installation tasks.
Virtual Machine images available at Amazon's <link xlink:href="https://aws.amazon.com/marketplace/pp/B07L6QV354">AWS Marketplace</link>, <link xlink:href="https://azuremarketplace.microsoft.com/en-us/marketplace/apps?search=freebsd&amp;page=1">Microsoft Azure Marketplace</link>, and <link xlink:href="https://console.cloud.google.com/marketplace/details/freebsd-cloud/freebsd-12">Google Cloud Platform</link>, to run on their respective hosting services. For more information on deploying FreeBSD on Azure please consult the relevant chapter in the <link xlink:href="https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/azure/virtual-machines/linux/freebsd-intro-on-azure">Azure Documentation</link>.
SD card images, for embedded systems such as Raspberry Pi or BeagleBone Black. These can be downloaded from the <link xlink:href="https://www.freebsd.org/where.html">Download FreeBSD</link> page. These files must be uncompressed and written as a raw image to an SD card, from which the board will then boot.
Installation images, to install FreeBSD on a hard drive for the usual desktop, laptop, or server systems.
The rest of this chapter describes the fourth case, explaining how to install FreeBSD using the text-based installation program named <application>bsdinstall</application>.
In general, the installation instructions in this chapter are written for the <trademark>i386</trademark> and <acronym>AMD64</acronym> architectures. Where applicable, instructions specific to other platforms will be listed. There may be minor differences between the installer and what is shown here, so use this chapter as a general guide rather than as a set of literal instructions.
Users who prefer to install FreeBSD using a graphical installer may be interested in <link xlink:href="https://www.furybsd.org">FuryBSD</link>, <link xlink:href="https://ghostbsd.org">GhostBSD</link> or <link xlink:href="https://www.midnightbsd.org">MidnightBSD</link>.
After reading this chapter, you will know:
The minimum hardware requirements and FreeBSD supported architectures.
How to create the FreeBSD installation media.
How to start <application>bsdinstall</application>.
The questions <application>bsdinstall</application> will ask, what they mean, and how to answer them.
How to troubleshoot a failed installation.
How to access a live version of FreeBSD before committing to an installation.
Before reading this chapter, you should:
Read the supported hardware list that shipped with the version of FreeBSD to be installed and verify that the system's hardware is supported.
Minimum Hardware Requirements
The hardware requirements to install FreeBSD vary by architecture. Hardware architectures and devices supported by a FreeBSD release are listed on the <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/releases/index.html">FreeBSD Release Information</link> page. The <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/where.html">FreeBSD download page</link> also has recommendations for choosing the correct image for different architectures.
A FreeBSD installation requires a minimum of 96 MB of <acronym>RAM</acronym> and 1.5 GB of free hard drive space. However, such small amounts of memory and disk space are really only suitable for custom applications like embedded appliances. General-purpose desktop systems need more resources. 2-4 GB RAM and at least 8 GB hard drive space is a good starting point.
These are the processor requirements for each architecture:
amd64
This is the most common desktop and laptop processor type, used in most modern systems. <trademark class="registered">Intel</trademark> calls it <acronym>Intel64</acronym>. Other manufacturers sometimes call it <acronym>x86-64</acronym>.
Examples of amd64 compatible processors include: <trademark>AMD Athlon</trademark>64, <trademark>AMD Opteron</trademark>, multi-core <trademark class="registered">Intel</trademark> <trademark>Xeon</trademark>, and <trademark class="registered">Intel</trademark> <trademark>Core</trademark> 2 and later processors.
i386
Older desktops and laptops often use this 32-bit, x86 architecture.
Almost all i386-compatible processors with a floating point unit are supported. All <trademark class="registered">Intel</trademark> processors 486 or higher are supported.
FreeBSD will take advantage of Physical Address Extensions (<acronym>PAE</acronym>) support on <acronym>CPU</acronym>s with this feature. A kernel with the <acronym>PAE</acronym> feature enabled will detect memory above 4 GB and allow it to be used by the system. However, using <acronym>PAE</acronym> places constraints on device drivers and other features of FreeBSD.
powerpc
All New World <acronym>ROM</acronym> <trademark class="registered">Apple</trademark> <trademark class="registered">Mac</trademark> systems with built-in <acronym>USB</acronym> are supported. <acronym>SMP</acronym> is supported on machines with multiple <acronym>CPU</acronym>s.

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(itstool) path: listitem/para
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book.translate.xml:2952
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Source string age
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books/handbook.pot, string 365