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Once the <acronym>AP</acronym> is running, the clients can associate with it. See <xref linkend="network-wireless-wpa"/> for more details. It is possible to see the stations associated with the <acronym>AP</acronym> using <command>ifconfig <replaceable>wlan0</replaceable> list sta</command>.
<acronym>WEP</acronym> Host-based Access Point
It is not recommended to use <acronym>WEP</acronym> for setting up an <acronym>AP</acronym> since there is no authentication mechanism and the encryption is easily cracked. Some legacy wireless cards only support <acronym>WEP</acronym> and these cards will only support an <acronym>AP</acronym> without authentication or encryption.
The wireless device can now be put into hostap mode and configured with the correct <acronym>SSID</acronym> and <acronym>IP</acronym> address:
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>ifconfig <replaceable>wlan0</replaceable> create wlandev <replaceable>ath0</replaceable> wlanmode hostap</userinput>
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>ifconfig <replaceable>wlan0</replaceable> inet <replaceable>192.168.0.1</replaceable> netmask <replaceable>255.255.255.0</replaceable> \
ssid <replaceable>freebsdap</replaceable> wepmode on weptxkey <replaceable>3</replaceable> wepkey <replaceable>3:0x3456789012</replaceable> mode 11g</userinput>
The <literal>weptxkey</literal> indicates which <acronym>WEP</acronym> key will be used in the transmission. This example uses the third key as key numbering starts with <literal>1</literal>. This parameter must be specified in order to encrypt the data.
The <literal>wepkey</literal> sets the selected <acronym>WEP</acronym> key. It should be in the format <replaceable>index:key</replaceable>. If the index is not given, key <literal>1</literal> is set. The index needs to be set when using keys other than the first key.
Use <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ifconfig</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> to see the status of the <filename>wlan0</filename> interface:
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>ifconfig <replaceable>wlan0</replaceable></userinput>
wlan0: flags=8843&lt;UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,SIMPLEX,MULTICAST&gt; metric 0 mtu 1500
ether 00:11:95:c3:0d:ac
inet 192.168.0.1 netmask 0xffffff00 broadcast 192.168.0.255
media: IEEE 802.11 Wireless Ethernet autoselect mode 11g &lt;hostap&gt;
status: running
ssid freebsdap channel 4 (2427 Mhz 11g) bssid 00:11:95:c3:0d:ac
country US ecm authmode OPEN privacy ON deftxkey 3 wepkey 3:40-bit
txpower 21.5 scanvalid 60 protmode CTS wme burst dtimperiod 1 -dfs
From another wireless machine, it is now possible to initiate a scan to find the <acronym>AP</acronym>:
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>ifconfig <replaceable>wlan0</replaceable> create wlandev <replaceable>ath0</replaceable></userinput>
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>ifconfig <replaceable>wlan0</replaceable> up scan</userinput>
SSID BSSID CHAN RATE S:N INT CAPS
freebsdap 00:11:95:c3:0d:ac 1 54M 22:1 100 EPS
In this example, the client machine found the <acronym>AP</acronym> and can associate with it using the correct parameters. See <xref linkend="network-wireless-wep"/> for more details.
Using Both Wired and Wireless Connections
A wired connection provides better performance and reliability, while a wireless connection provides flexibility and mobility. Laptop users typically want to roam seamlessly between the two types of connections.
On FreeBSD, it is possible to combine two or even more network interfaces together in a <quote>failover</quote> fashion. This type of configuration uses the most preferred and available connection from a group of network interfaces, and the operating system switches automatically when the link state changes.
Link aggregation and failover is covered in <xref linkend="network-aggregation"/> and an example for using both wired and wireless connections is provided at <xref linkend="networking-lagg-wired-and-wireless"/>.
This section describes a number of steps to help troubleshoot common wireless networking problems.
If the access point is not listed when scanning, check that the configuration has not limited the wireless device to a limited set of channels.
If the device cannot associate with an access point, verify that the configuration matches the settings on the access point. This includes the authentication scheme and any security protocols. Simplify the configuration as much as possible. If using a security protocol such as <acronym>WPA</acronym> or <acronym>WEP</acronym>, configure the access point for open authentication and no security to see if traffic will pass.
Debugging support is provided by <citerefentry><refentrytitle>wpa_supplicant</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>. Try running this utility manually with <option>-dd</option> and look at the system logs.
Once the system can associate with the access point, diagnose the network configuration using tools like <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ping</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>.
There are many lower-level debugging tools. Debugging messages can be enabled in the 802.11 protocol support layer using <citerefentry><refentrytitle>wlandebug</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>. For example, to enable console messages related to scanning for access points and the 802.11 protocol handshakes required to arrange communication:
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>wlandebug -i <replaceable>wlan0</replaceable> +scan+auth+debug+assoc</userinput>
net.wlan.0.debug: 0 =&gt; 0xc80000&lt;assoc,auth,scan&gt;
Many useful statistics are maintained by the 802.11 layer and <command>wlanstats</command>, found in <filename>/usr/src/tools/tools/net80211</filename>, will dump this information. These statistics should display all errors identified by the 802.11 layer. However, some errors are identified in the device drivers that lie below the 802.11 layer so they may not show up. To diagnose device-specific problems, refer to the drivers' documentation.
If the above information does not help to clarify the problem, submit a problem report and include output from the above tools.
USB Tethering
<primary>tether</primary>
Many cellphones provide the option to share their data connection over USB (often called "tethering"). This feature uses one of <acronym>RNDIS</acronym>, <acronym>CDC</acronym>, or a custom <trademark class="registered">Apple</trademark> <trademark class="registered">iPhone</trademark>/<trademark class="registered">iPad</trademark> protocol.
<trademark>Android</trademark> devices generally use the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>urndis</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> driver.
<trademark class="registered">Apple</trademark> devices use the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ipheth</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> driver.
Older devices will often use the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>cdce</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> driver.

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Source string comment
(itstool) path: sect2/para
Flags
read-only
Source string location
book.translate.xml:64306
String age
a year ago
Source string age
a year ago
Translation file
books/handbook.pot, string 10517