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(itstool) path: sect5/title
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In general, shared key authentication should be avoided because it uses the <acronym>WEP</acronym> key material in a highly-constrained manner, making it even easier to crack the key. If <acronym>WEP</acronym> must be used for compatibility with legacy devices, it is better to use <acronym>WEP</acronym> with <literal>open</literal> authentication. More information regarding <acronym>WEP</acronym> can be found in <xref linkend="network-wireless-wep"/>.
Getting an <acronym>IP</acronym> Address with <acronym>DHCP</acronym>
Once an access point is selected and the authentication parameters are set, an <acronym>IP</acronym> address must be obtained in order to communicate. Most of the time, the <acronym>IP</acronym> address is obtained via <acronym>DHCP</acronym>. To achieve that, edit <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> and add <literal>DHCP</literal> to the configuration for the device:
The wireless interface is now ready to bring up:
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>service netif start</userinput>
Once the interface is running, use <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ifconfig</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> to see the status of the interface <filename>ath0</filename>:
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>ifconfig <replaceable>wlan0</replaceable></userinput>
wlan0: flags=8843&lt;UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,SIMPLEX,MULTICAST&gt; mtu 1500
ether 00:11:95:d5:43:62
inet 192.168.1.100 netmask 0xffffff00 broadcast 192.168.1.255
media: IEEE 802.11 Wireless Ethernet OFDM/54Mbps mode 11g
status: associated
ssid dlinkap channel 11 (2462 Mhz 11g) bssid 00:13:46:49:41:76
country US ecm authmode OPEN privacy OFF txpower 21.5 bmiss 7
scanvalid 60 bgscan bgscanintvl 300 bgscanidle 250 roam:rssi 7
roam:rate 5 protmode CTS wme burst
The <literal>status: associated</literal> line means that it is connected to the wireless network. The <literal>bssid 00:13:46:49:41:76</literal> is the <acronym>MAC</acronym> address of the access point and <literal>authmode OPEN</literal> indicates that the communication is not encrypted.
Static <acronym>IP</acronym> Address
If an <acronym>IP</acronym> address cannot be obtained from a <acronym>DHCP</acronym> server, set a fixed <acronym>IP</acronym> address. Replace the <literal>DHCP</literal> keyword shown above with the address information. Be sure to retain any other parameters for selecting the access point:
wlans_ath0="wlan0"
ifconfig_wlan0="inet <replaceable>192.168.1.100</replaceable> netmask <replaceable>255.255.255.0</replaceable> ssid <replaceable>your_ssid_here</replaceable>"
<acronym>WPA</acronym>
Wi-Fi Protected Access (<acronym>WPA</acronym>) is a security protocol used together with 802.11 networks to address the lack of proper authentication and the weakness of <acronym>WEP</acronym>. WPA leverages the 802.1X authentication protocol and uses one of several ciphers instead of <acronym>WEP</acronym> for data integrity. The only cipher required by <acronym>WPA</acronym> is the Temporary Key Integrity Protocol (<acronym>TKIP</acronym>). <acronym>TKIP</acronym> is a cipher that extends the basic RC4 cipher used by <acronym>WEP</acronym> by adding integrity checking, tamper detection, and measures for responding to detected intrusions. <acronym>TKIP</acronym> is designed to work on legacy hardware with only software modification. It represents a compromise that improves security but is still not entirely immune to attack. <acronym>WPA</acronym> also specifies the <acronym>AES-CCMP</acronym> cipher as an alternative to <acronym>TKIP</acronym>, and that is preferred when possible. For this specification, the term <acronym>WPA2</acronym> or <acronym>RSN</acronym> is commonly used.
<acronym>WPA</acronym> defines authentication and encryption protocols. Authentication is most commonly done using one of two techniques: by 802.1X and a backend authentication service such as <acronym>RADIUS</acronym>, or by a minimal handshake between the station and the access point using a pre-shared secret. The former is commonly termed <acronym>WPA</acronym> Enterprise and the latter is known as <acronym>WPA</acronym> Personal. Since most people will not set up a <acronym>RADIUS</acronym> backend server for their wireless network, <acronym>WPA-PSK</acronym> is by far the most commonly encountered configuration for <acronym>WPA</acronym>.
The control of the wireless connection and the key negotiation or authentication with a server is done using <citerefentry><refentrytitle>wpa_supplicant</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>. This program requires a configuration file, <filename>/etc/wpa_supplicant.conf</filename>, to run. More information regarding this file can be found in <citerefentry><refentrytitle>wpa_supplicant.conf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>.
<acronym>WPA-PSK</acronym>
<acronym>WPA-PSK</acronym>, also known as <acronym>WPA</acronym> Personal, is based on a pre-shared key (<acronym>PSK</acronym>) which is generated from a given password and used as the master key in the wireless network. This means every wireless user will share the same key. <acronym>WPA-PSK</acronym> is intended for small networks where the use of an authentication server is not possible or desired.
Always use strong passwords that are sufficiently long and made from a rich alphabet so that they will not be easily guessed or attacked.
The first step is the configuration of <filename>/etc/wpa_supplicant.conf</filename> with the <acronym>SSID</acronym> and the pre-shared key of the network:
network={
ssid="freebsdap"
psk="freebsdmall"
}
Then, in <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>, indicate that the wireless device configuration will be done with <acronym>WPA</acronym> and the <acronym>IP</acronym> address will be obtained with <acronym>DHCP</acronym>:
wlans_ath0="wlan0"
ifconfig_wlan0="WPA DHCP"
Then, bring up the interface:
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>service netif start</userinput>
Starting wpa_supplicant.
DHCPDISCOVER on wlan0 to 255.255.255.255 port 67 interval 5
DHCPDISCOVER on wlan0 to 255.255.255.255 port 67 interval 6
DHCPOFFER from 192.168.0.1
DHCPREQUEST on wlan0 to 255.255.255.255 port 67
DHCPACK from 192.168.0.1
bound to 192.168.0.254 -- renewal in 300 seconds.
wlan0: flags=8843&lt;UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,SIMPLEX,MULTICAST&gt; mtu 1500
ether 00:11:95:d5:43:62
inet 192.168.0.254 netmask 0xffffff00 broadcast 192.168.0.255
media: IEEE 802.11 Wireless Ethernet OFDM/36Mbps mode 11g
status: associated
ssid freebsdap channel 1 (2412 Mhz 11g) bssid 00:11:95:c3:0d:ac
country US ecm authmode WPA2/802.11i privacy ON deftxkey UNDEF
AES-CCM 3:128-bit txpower 21.5 bmiss 7 scanvalid 450 bgscan
bgscanintvl 300 bgscanidle 250 roam:rssi 7 roam:rate 5 protmode CTS
wme burst roaming MANUAL
Or, try to configure the interface manually using the information in <filename>/etc/wpa_supplicant.conf</filename>:
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>wpa_supplicant -i <replaceable>wlan0</replaceable> -c /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf</userinput>
Trying to associate with 00:11:95:c3:0d:ac (SSID='freebsdap' freq=2412 MHz)
Associated with 00:11:95:c3:0d:ac
WPA: Key negotiation completed with 00:11:95:c3:0d:ac [PTK=CCMP GTK=CCMP]
CTRL-EVENT-CONNECTED - Connection to 00:11:95:c3:0d:ac completed (auth) [id=0 id_str=]
The next operation is to launch <citerefentry><refentrytitle>dhclient</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> to get the <acronym>IP</acronym> address from the <acronym>DHCP</acronym> server:
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>dhclient <replaceable>wlan0</replaceable></userinput>
DHCPREQUEST on wlan0 to 255.255.255.255 port 67
DHCPACK from 192.168.0.1
bound to 192.168.0.254 -- renewal in 300 seconds.
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>ifconfig <replaceable>wlan0</replaceable></userinput>
wlan0: flags=8843&lt;UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,SIMPLEX,MULTICAST&gt; mtu 1500
ether 00:11:95:d5:43:62
inet 192.168.0.254 netmask 0xffffff00 broadcast 192.168.0.255
media: IEEE 802.11 Wireless Ethernet OFDM/36Mbps mode 11g
status: associated
ssid freebsdap channel 1 (2412 Mhz 11g) bssid 00:11:95:c3:0d:ac
country US ecm authmode WPA2/802.11i privacy ON deftxkey UNDEF
AES-CCM 3:128-bit txpower 21.5 bmiss 7 scanvalid 450 bgscan
bgscanintvl 300 bgscanidle 250 roam:rssi 7 roam:rate 5 protmode CTS
wme burst roaming MANUAL
If <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> has an <literal>ifconfig_wlan0="DHCP"</literal> entry, <citerefentry><refentrytitle>dhclient</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> will be launched automatically after <citerefentry><refentrytitle>wpa_supplicant</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> associates with the access point.
If <acronym>DHCP</acronym> is not possible or desired, set a static <acronym>IP</acronym> address after <citerefentry><refentrytitle>wpa_supplicant</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> has authenticated the station:
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>ifconfig <replaceable>wlan0</replaceable> inet <replaceable>192.168.0.100</replaceable> netmask <replaceable>255.255.255.0</replaceable></userinput>
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>ifconfig <replaceable>wlan0</replaceable></userinput>
wlan0: flags=8843&lt;UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,SIMPLEX,MULTICAST&gt; mtu 1500
ether 00:11:95:d5:43:62
inet 192.168.0.100 netmask 0xffffff00 broadcast 192.168.0.255
media: IEEE 802.11 Wireless Ethernet OFDM/36Mbps mode 11g
status: associated
ssid freebsdap channel 1 (2412 Mhz 11g) bssid 00:11:95:c3:0d:ac
country US ecm authmode WPA2/802.11i privacy ON deftxkey UNDEF
AES-CCM 3:128-bit txpower 21.5 bmiss 7 scanvalid 450 bgscan
bgscanintvl 300 bgscanidle 250 roam:rssi 7 roam:rate 5 protmode CTS
wme burst roaming MANUAL

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Source string comment
(itstool) path: sect5/title
Flags
read-only
Source string location
book.translate.xml:65266
String age
a year ago
Source string age
a year ago
Translation file
books/handbook.pot, string 10695