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_ external ref='basics/disk-layout' md5='__failed__'
Mounting and Unmounting File Systems
The file system is best visualized as a tree, rooted, as it were, at <filename>/</filename>. <filename>/dev</filename>, <filename>/usr</filename>, and the other directories in the root directory are branches, which may have their own branches, such as <filename>/usr/local</filename>, and so on.
<primary>root file system</primary>
There are various reasons to house some of these directories on separate file systems. <filename>/var</filename> contains the directories <filename>log/</filename>, <filename>spool/</filename>, and various types of temporary files, and as such, may get filled up. Filling up the root file system is not a good idea, so splitting <filename>/var</filename> from <filename>/</filename> is often favorable.
Another common reason to contain certain directory trees on other file systems is if they are to be housed on separate physical disks, or are separate virtual disks, such as Network File System mounts, described in <xref linkend="network-nfs"/>, or CDROM drives.
The <filename>fstab</filename> File
<primary>file systems</primary> <secondary>mounted with fstab</secondary>
During the boot process (<xref linkend="boot"/>), file systems listed in <filename>/etc/fstab</filename> are automatically mounted except for the entries containing <option>noauto</option>. This file contains entries in the following format:
<replaceable>device</replaceable> <replaceable>/mount-point</replaceable> <replaceable>fstype</replaceable> <replaceable>options</replaceable> <replaceable>dumpfreq</replaceable> <replaceable>passno</replaceable>
<literal>device</literal>
An existing device name as explained in <xref linkend="disks-naming"/>.
<literal>mount-point</literal>
An existing directory on which to mount the file system.
<literal>fstype</literal>
The file system type to pass to <citerefentry><refentrytitle>mount</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>. The default FreeBSD file system is <literal>ufs</literal>.
<literal>options</literal>
Either <option>rw</option> for read-write file systems, or <option>ro</option> for read-only file systems, followed by any other options that may be needed. A common option is <option>noauto</option> for file systems not normally mounted during the boot sequence. Other options are listed in <citerefentry><refentrytitle>mount</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>.
<literal>dumpfreq</literal>
Used by <citerefentry><refentrytitle>dump</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> to determine which file systems require dumping. If the field is missing, a value of zero is assumed.
<literal>passno</literal>
Determines the order in which file systems should be checked. File systems that should be skipped should have their <literal>passno</literal> set to zero. The root file system needs to be checked before everything else and should have its <literal>passno</literal> set to one. The other file systems should be set to values greater than one. If more than one file system has the same <literal>passno</literal>, <citerefentry><refentrytitle>fsck</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> will attempt to check file systems in parallel if possible.
Refer to <citerefentry><refentrytitle>fstab</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry> for more information on the format of <filename>/etc/fstab</filename> and its options.
Using <citerefentry><refentrytitle>mount</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>
<primary>file systems</primary> <secondary>mounting</secondary>
File systems are mounted using <citerefentry><refentrytitle>mount</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>. The most basic syntax is as follows:
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>mount <replaceable>device</replaceable> <replaceable>mountpoint</replaceable></userinput>
This command provides many options which are described in <citerefentry><refentrytitle>mount</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>, The most commonly used options include:
Mount Options
<option>-a</option>
Mount all the file systems listed in <filename>/etc/fstab</filename>, except those marked as <quote>noauto</quote>, excluded by the <option>-t</option> flag, or those that are already mounted.

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Source string comment
(itstool) path: listitem/para
Flags
read-only
Source string location
book.translate.xml:8171
String age
a year ago
Source string age
a year ago
Translation file
books/handbook.pot, string 1329