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Many of the designations used by manufacturers and sellers to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in this document, and the FreeBSD Project was aware of the trademark claim, the designations have been followed by the <quote>™</quote> or the <quote>®</quote> symbol.
Welcome to FreeBSD! This handbook covers the installation and day to day use of <emphasis>FreeBSD 12.2-RELEASE</emphasis>, <emphasis>FreeBSD 12.1-RELEASE</emphasis>, and <emphasis>FreeBSD 11.4-RELEASE</emphasis>. This book is the result of ongoing work by many individuals. Some sections might be outdated. Those interested in helping to update and expand this document should send email to the <link xlink:href="http://lists.FreeBSD.org/mailman/listinfo/freebsd-doc">FreeBSD documentation project mailing list</link>.
The latest version of this book is available from the <link xlink:href="https://www.FreeBSD.org/">FreeBSD web site</link>. Previous versions can be obtained from <uri xlink:href="https://docs.FreeBSD.org/doc/">https://docs.FreeBSD.org/doc/</uri>. The book can be downloaded in a variety of formats and compression options from the <link xlink:href="https://download.freebsd.org/ftp/doc/">FreeBSD FTP server</link> or one of the numerous <link linkend="mirrors-ftp">mirror sites</link>. Printed copies can be purchased at the <link xlink:href="https://www.freebsdmall.com/">FreeBSD Mall</link>. Searches can be performed on the handbook and other documents on the <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/search/index.html">search page</link>.
Preface
Intended Audience
The FreeBSD newcomer will find that the first section of this book guides the user through the FreeBSD installation process and gently introduces the concepts and conventions that underpin <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark>. Working through this section requires little more than the desire to explore, and the ability to take on board new concepts as they are introduced.
Once you have traveled this far, the second, far larger, section of the Handbook is a comprehensive reference to all manner of topics of interest to FreeBSD system administrators. Some of these chapters may recommend that you do some prior reading, and this is noted in the synopsis at the beginning of each chapter.
For a list of additional sources of information, please see <xref linkend="bibliography"/>.
Changes from the Third Edition
The current online version of the Handbook represents the cumulative effort of many hundreds of contributors over the past 10 years. The following are some of the significant changes since the two volume third edition was published in 2004:
<xref linkend="wine"/> has been added with information about how to run <trademark class="registered">Windows</trademark> applications on FreeBSD.
<xref linkend="dtrace"/> has been added with information about the powerful DTrace performance analysis tool.
<xref linkend="filesystems"/> has been added with information about non-native file systems in FreeBSD, such as ZFS from <trademark>Sun</trademark>.
<xref linkend="audit"/> has been added to cover the new auditing capabilities in FreeBSD and explain its use.
<xref linkend="virtualization"/> has been added with information about installing FreeBSD on virtualization software.
<xref linkend="bsdinstall"/> has been added to cover installation of FreeBSD using the new installation utility, <application>bsdinstall</application>.
Changes from the Second Edition (2004)
The third edition was the culmination of over two years of work by the dedicated members of the FreeBSD Documentation Project. The printed edition grew to such a size that it was necessary to publish as two separate volumes. The following are the major changes in this new edition:
<xref linkend="config-tuning"/> has been expanded with new information about the ACPI power and resource management, the <command>cron</command> system utility, and more kernel tuning options.
<xref linkend="security"/> has been expanded with new information about virtual private networks (VPNs), file system access control lists (ACLs), and security advisories.
<xref linkend="mac"/> is a new chapter with this edition. It explains what MAC is and how this mechanism can be used to secure a FreeBSD system.
<xref linkend="disks"/> has been expanded with new information about USB storage devices, file system snapshots, file system quotas, file and network backed filesystems, and encrypted disk partitions.
A troubleshooting section has been added to <xref linkend="ppp-and-slip"/>.
<xref linkend="mail"/> has been expanded with new information about using alternative transport agents, SMTP authentication, UUCP, <application>fetchmail</application>, <application>procmail</application>, and other advanced topics.
<xref linkend="network-servers"/> is all new with this edition. This chapter includes information about setting up the <application>Apache HTTP Server</application>, <application>ftpd</application>, and setting up a server for <trademark class="registered">Microsoft</trademark> <trademark class="registered">Windows</trademark> clients with <application>Samba</application>. Some sections from <xref linkend="advanced-networking"/> were moved here to improve the presentation.
<xref linkend="advanced-networking"/> has been expanded with new information about using <trademark class="registered">Bluetooth</trademark> devices with FreeBSD, setting up wireless networks, and Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) networking.
A glossary has been added to provide a central location for the definitions of technical terms used throughout the book.
A number of aesthetic improvements have been made to the tables and figures throughout the book.
Changes from the First Edition (2001)
The second edition was the culmination of over two years of work by the dedicated members of the FreeBSD Documentation Project. The following were the major changes in this edition:
A complete Index has been added.

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(itstool) path: listitem/para
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read-only
Source string location
book.translate.xml:957
String age
a year ago
Source string age
a year ago
Translation file
books/handbook.pot, string 52