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(itstool) path: chapter/indexterm
Context English State
<literal>port</literal>: specifies the start address of the <acronym>I/O</acronym> to be used.
<literal>irq</literal>: specifies the interrupt request number to be used.
<literal>drq</literal>: specifies the DMA channel number.
<literal>maddr</literal>: specifies the physical memory address occupied by the device.
<literal>flags</literal>: sets various flag bits for the device.
<literal>disabled</literal>: if set to <literal>1</literal> the device is disabled.
Since device drivers may accept or require more hints not listed here, viewing a driver's manual page is recommended. For more information, refer to <citerefentry vendor="current"><refentrytitle>device.hints</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>, <citerefentry><refentrytitle>kenv</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>, <citerefentry><refentrytitle>loader.conf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>, and <citerefentry><refentrytitle>loader</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>.
Shutdown Sequence
Upon controlled shutdown using <citerefentry><refentrytitle>shutdown</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>, <citerefentry><refentrytitle>init</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> will attempt to run the script <filename>/etc/rc.shutdown</filename>, and then proceed to send all processes the <literal>TERM</literal> signal, and subsequently the <literal>KILL</literal> signal to any that do not terminate in a timely manner.
To power down a FreeBSD machine on architectures and systems that support power management, use <command>shutdown -p now</command> to turn the power off immediately. To reboot a FreeBSD system, use <command>shutdown -r now</command>. One must be <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> or a member of <systemitem class="groupname">operator</systemitem> in order to run <citerefentry><refentrytitle>shutdown</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>. One can also use <citerefentry><refentrytitle>halt</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> and <citerefentry><refentrytitle>reboot</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>. Refer to their manual pages and to <citerefentry><refentrytitle>shutdown</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> for more information.
Modify group membership by referring to <xref linkend="users-synopsis"/>.
Power management requires <citerefentry><refentrytitle>acpi</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> to be loaded as a module or statically compiled into a custom kernel.
<personname> <firstname>Tom</firstname> <surname>Rhodes</surname> </personname> <contrib>Rewritten by </contrib>
Security, whether physical or virtual, is a topic so broad that an entire industry has evolved around it. Hundreds of standard practices have been authored about how to secure systems and networks, and as a user of FreeBSD, understanding how to protect against attacks and intruders is a must.
In this chapter, several fundamentals and techniques will be discussed. The FreeBSD system comes with multiple layers of security, and many more third party utilities may be added to enhance security.
Basic FreeBSD system security concepts.
The various crypt mechanisms available in FreeBSD.
How to set up one-time password authentication.
How to configure <application>TCP Wrapper</application> for use with <citerefentry><refentrytitle>inetd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>.
How to set up <application>Kerberos</application> on FreeBSD.
How to configure <acronym>IPsec</acronym> and create a <acronym>VPN</acronym>.
How to configure and use <application>OpenSSH</application> on FreeBSD.
How to use file system <acronym>ACL</acronym>s.
How to use <application>pkg</application> to audit third party software packages installed from the Ports Collection.
How to utilize FreeBSD security advisories.
What Process Accounting is and how to enable it on FreeBSD.
How to control user resources using login classes or the resource limits database.
Understand basic FreeBSD and Internet concepts.
Component Translation Difference to current string
This translation Translated FreeBSD Doc (Archived)/books_handbook
The following string has the same context and source.
Translated FreeBSD Doc (Archived)/books_arch-handbook


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Unchanged translation: Chinese (Simplified) (zh_CN)
Has been translated: Turkish (tr_TR)


Source information

Source string comment
(itstool) path: chapter/indexterm
Source string location
String age
a year ago
Source string age
a year ago
Translation file
books/handbook.pot, string 4190