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The following examples use the <application>Net-SNMP</application> software (<package>net-mgmt/net-snmp</package>) to query a bridge from a client system. The <package>net-mgmt/bsnmptools</package> port can also be used. From the <acronym>SNMP</acronym> client which is running <application>Net-SNMP</application>, add the following lines to <filename>$HOME/.snmp/snmp.conf</filename> in order to import the bridge <acronym>MIB</acronym> definitions:
mibdirs +/usr/share/snmp/mibs
To monitor a single bridge using the IETF BRIDGE-MIB (RFC4188):
<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>snmpwalk -v 2c -c public mib-2.dot1dBridge</userinput>
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dBaseBridgeAddress.0 = STRING: 66:fb:9b:6e:5c:44
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dBaseNumPorts.0 = INTEGER: 1 ports
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpTimeSinceTopologyChange.0 = Timeticks: (189959) 0:31:39.59 centi-seconds
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpTopChanges.0 = Counter32: 2
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpDesignatedRoot.0 = Hex-STRING: 80 00 00 01 02 4B D4 50
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpPortState.3 = INTEGER: forwarding(5)
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpPortEnable.3 = INTEGER: enabled(1)
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpPortPathCost.3 = INTEGER: 200000
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpPortDesignatedRoot.3 = Hex-STRING: 80 00 00 01 02 4B D4 50
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpPortDesignatedCost.3 = INTEGER: 0
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpPortDesignatedBridge.3 = Hex-STRING: 80 00 00 01 02 4B D4 50
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpPortDesignatedPort.3 = Hex-STRING: 03 80
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpPortForwardTransitions.3 = Counter32: 1
RSTP-MIB::dot1dStpVersion.0 = INTEGER: rstp(2)
The <literal>dot1dStpTopChanges.0</literal> value is two, indicating that the <acronym>STP</acronym> bridge topology has changed twice. A topology change means that one or more links in the network have changed or failed and a new tree has been calculated. The <literal>dot1dStpTimeSinceTopologyChange.0</literal> value will show when this happened.
To monitor multiple bridge interfaces, the private BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB can be used:
<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>snmpwalk -v 2c -c public</userinput>
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeBaseName."bridge0" = STRING: bridge0
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeBaseName."bridge2" = STRING: bridge2
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeBaseAddress."bridge0" = STRING: e:ce:3b:5a:9e:13
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeBaseAddress."bridge2" = STRING: 12:5e:4d:74:d:fc
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeBaseNumPorts."bridge0" = INTEGER: 1
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeBaseNumPorts."bridge2" = INTEGER: 1
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeStpTimeSinceTopologyChange."bridge0" = Timeticks: (116927) 0:19:29.27 centi-seconds
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeStpTimeSinceTopologyChange."bridge2" = Timeticks: (82773) 0:13:47.73 centi-seconds
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeStpTopChanges."bridge0" = Counter32: 1
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeStpTopChanges."bridge2" = Counter32: 1
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeStpDesignatedRoot."bridge0" = Hex-STRING: 80 00 00 40 95 30 5E 31
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeStpDesignatedRoot."bridge2" = Hex-STRING: 80 00 00 50 8B B8 C6 A9
To change the bridge interface being monitored via the <literal>mib-2.dot1dBridge</literal> subtree:
<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>snmpset -v 2c -c private</userinput>
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeDefaultBridgeIf.0 s bridge2
Link Aggregation and Failover
FreeBSD provides the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>lagg</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> interface which can be used to aggregate multiple network interfaces into one virtual interface in order to provide failover and link aggregation. Failover allows traffic to continue to flow as long as at least one aggregated network interface has an established link. Link aggregation works best on switches which support <acronym>LACP</acronym>, as this protocol distributes traffic bi-directionally while responding to the failure of individual links.
The aggregation protocols supported by the lagg interface determine which ports are used for outgoing traffic and whether or not a specific port accepts incoming traffic. The following protocols are supported by <citerefentry><refentrytitle>lagg</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry>:
This mode sends and receives traffic only through the master port. If the master port becomes unavailable, the next active port is used. The first interface added to the virtual interface is the master port and all subsequently added interfaces are used as failover devices. If failover to a non-master port occurs, the original port becomes master once it becomes available again.
fec / loadbalance
<trademark class="registered">Cisco</trademark> Fast <trademark class="registered">EtherChannel</trademark> (<acronym>FEC</acronym>) is found on older <trademark class="registered">Cisco</trademark> switches. It provides a static setup and does not negotiate aggregation with the peer or exchange frames to monitor the link. If the switch supports <acronym>LACP</acronym>, that should be used instead.
The <trademark class="registered">IEEE</trademark> 802.3ad Link Aggregation Control Protocol (<acronym>LACP</acronym>) negotiates a set of aggregable links with the peer into one or more Link Aggregated Groups (<acronym>LAG</acronym>s). Each <acronym>LAG</acronym> is composed of ports of the same speed, set to full-duplex operation, and traffic is balanced across the ports in the <acronym>LAG</acronym> with the greatest total speed. Typically, there is only one <acronym>LAG</acronym> which contains all the ports. In the event of changes in physical connectivity, <acronym>LACP</acronym> will quickly converge to a new configuration.
<acronym>LACP</acronym> balances outgoing traffic across the active ports based on hashed protocol header information and accepts incoming traffic from any active port. The hash includes the Ethernet source and destination address and, if available, the <acronym>VLAN</acronym> tag, and the <acronym>IPv4</acronym> or <acronym>IPv6</acronym> source and destination address.
This mode distributes outgoing traffic using a round-robin scheduler through all active ports and accepts incoming traffic from any active port. Since this mode violates Ethernet frame ordering, it should be used with caution.
Configuration Examples
This section demonstrates how to configure a <trademark class="registered">Cisco</trademark> switch and a FreeBSD system for <acronym>LACP</acronym> load balancing. It then shows how to configure two Ethernet interfaces in failover mode as well as how to configure failover mode between an Ethernet and a wireless interface.
<acronym>LACP</acronym> Aggregation with a <trademark class="registered">Cisco</trademark> Switch
This example connects two <citerefentry><refentrytitle>fxp</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> Ethernet interfaces on a FreeBSD machine to the first two Ethernet ports on a <trademark class="registered">Cisco</trademark> switch as a single load balanced and fault tolerant link. More interfaces can be added to increase throughput and fault tolerance. Replace the names of the <trademark class="registered">Cisco</trademark> ports, Ethernet devices, channel group number, and <acronym>IP</acronym> address shown in the example to match the local configuration.


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(itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
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a year ago
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a year ago
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books/handbook.pot, string 11042