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(itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
<primary>File Systems</primary>
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Reservations of any sort are useful in many situations, such as planning and testing the suitability of disk space allocation in a new system, or ensuring that enough space is available on file systems for audio logs or system recovery procedures and files.
The <literal>reservation</literal> property makes it possible to guarantee a minimum amount of space for a specific dataset and its descendants. If a 10 GB reservation is set on <filename>storage/home/bob</filename>, and another dataset tries to use all of the free space, at least 10 GB of space is reserved for this dataset. If a snapshot is taken of <filename>storage/home/bob</filename>, the space used by that snapshot is counted against the reservation. The <link linkend="zfs-term-refreservation"><literal>refreservation</literal></link> property works in a similar way, but it <emphasis>excludes</emphasis> descendants like snapshots. <_:para-1/>
Reference Reservation
The <literal>refreservation</literal> property makes it possible to guarantee a minimum amount of space for the use of a specific dataset <emphasis>excluding</emphasis> its descendants. This means that if a 10 GB reservation is set on <filename>storage/home/bob</filename>, and another dataset tries to use all of the free space, at least 10 GB of space is reserved for this dataset. In contrast to a regular <link linkend="zfs-term-reservation">reservation</link>, space used by snapshots and descendant datasets is not counted against the reservation. For example, if a snapshot is taken of <filename>storage/home/bob</filename>, enough disk space must exist outside of the <literal>refreservation</literal> amount for the operation to succeed. Descendants of the main data set are not counted in the <literal>refreservation</literal> amount and so do not encroach on the space set.
When a disk fails and is replaced, the new disk must be filled with the data that was lost. The process of using the parity information distributed across the remaining drives to calculate and write the missing data to the new drive is called <emphasis>resilvering</emphasis>.
A pool or vdev in the <literal>Online</literal> state has all of its member devices connected and fully operational. Individual devices in the <literal>Online</literal> state are functioning normally.
Individual devices can be put in an <literal>Offline</literal> state by the administrator if there is sufficient redundancy to avoid putting the pool or vdev into a <link linkend="zfs-term-faulted">Faulted</link> state. An administrator may choose to offline a disk in preparation for replacing it, or to make it easier to identify.
A pool or vdev in the <literal>Degraded</literal> state has one or more disks that have been disconnected or have failed. The pool is still usable, but if additional devices fail, the pool could become unrecoverable. Reconnecting the missing devices or replacing the failed disks will return the pool to an <link linkend="zfs-term-online">Online</link> state after the reconnected or new device has completed the <link linkend="zfs-term-resilver">Resilver</link> process.
A pool or vdev in the <literal>Faulted</literal> state is no longer operational. The data on it can no longer be accessed. A pool or vdev enters the <literal>Faulted</literal> state when the number of missing or failed devices exceeds the level of redundancy in the vdev. If missing devices can be reconnected, the pool will return to a <link linkend="zfs-term-online">Online</link> state. If there is insufficient redundancy to compensate for the number of failed disks, then the contents of the pool are lost and must be restored from backups.
Other File Systems
<primary>File Systems</primary>
<primary>File Systems Support</primary> <see>File Systems</see>
File systems are an integral part of any operating system. They allow users to upload and store files, provide access to data, and make hard drives useful. Different operating systems differ in their native file system. Traditionally, the native FreeBSD file system has been the Unix File System <acronym>UFS</acronym> which has been modernized as <acronym>UFS2</acronym>. Since FreeBSD 7.0, the Z File System (<acronym>ZFS</acronym>) is also available as a native file system. See <xref linkend="zfs"/> for more information.
In addition to its native file systems, FreeBSD supports a multitude of other file systems so that data from other operating systems can be accessed locally, such as data stored on locally attached <acronym>USB</acronym> storage devices, flash drives, and hard disks. This includes support for the <trademark class="registered">Linux</trademark> Extended File System (<acronym>EXT</acronym>).
There are different levels of FreeBSD support for the various file systems. Some require a kernel module to be loaded and others may require a toolset to be installed. Some non-native file system support is full read-write while others are read-only.
The difference between native and supported file systems.
Which file systems are supported by FreeBSD.
How to enable, configure, access, and make use of non-native file systems.
Understand <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark> and <link linkend="basics">FreeBSD basics</link>.
Be familiar with the basics of <link linkend="kernelconfig">kernel configuration and compilation</link>.
Feel comfortable <link linkend="ports">installing software</link> in FreeBSD.
Have some familiarity with <link linkend="disks">disks</link>, storage, and device names in FreeBSD.
<trademark class="registered">Linux</trademark> File Systems
FreeBSD provides built-in support for several <trademark class="registered">Linux</trademark> file systems. This section demonstrates how to load support for and how to mount the supported <trademark class="registered">Linux</trademark> file systems.
Kernel support for ext2 file systems has been available since FreeBSD 2.2. In FreeBSD 8.x and earlier, the code is licensed under the <acronym>GPL</acronym>. Since FreeBSD 9.0, the code has been rewritten and is now <acronym>BSD</acronym> licensed.


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books/es_ES/handbook.po, string 7091