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Route involves references to Ethernet (link) hardware.
On a FreeBSD system, the default route can defined in <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> by specifying the <acronym>IP</acronym> address of the default gateway:
It is also possible to manually add the route using <command>route</command>:
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>route add default</userinput>
Note that manually added routes will not survive a reboot. For more information on manual manipulation of network routing tables, refer to <citerefentry><refentrytitle>route</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>.
Configuring a Router with Static Routes
<personname> <firstname>Al</firstname> <surname>Hoang</surname> </personname> <contrib>Contributed by </contrib>
<primary>dual homed hosts</primary>
A FreeBSD system can be configured as the default gateway, or router, for a network if it is a dual-homed system. A dual-homed system is a host which resides on at least two different networks. Typically, each network is connected to a separate network interface, though <acronym>IP</acronym> aliasing can be used to bind multiple addresses, each on a different subnet, to one physical interface.
In order for the system to forward packets between interfaces, FreeBSD must be configured as a router. Internet standards and good engineering practice prevent the FreeBSD Project from enabling this feature by default, but it can be configured to start at boot by adding this line to <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>:
gateway_enable="YES" # Set to YES if this host will be a gateway
To enable routing now, set the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sysctl</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> variable <varname>net.inet.ip.forwarding</varname> to <literal>1</literal>. To stop routing, reset this variable to <literal>0</literal>.
The routing table of a router needs additional routes so it knows how to reach other networks. Routes can be either added manually using static routes or routes can be automatically learned using a routing protocol. Static routes are appropriate for small networks and this section describes how to add a static routing entry for a small network.
For large networks, static routes quickly become unscalable. FreeBSD comes with the standard <acronym>BSD</acronym> routing daemon <citerefentry><refentrytitle>routed</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>, which provides the routing protocols <acronym>RIP</acronym>, versions 1 and 2, and <acronym>IRDP</acronym>. Support for the <acronym>BGP</acronym> and <acronym>OSPF</acronym> routing protocols can be installed using the <package>net/zebra</package> package or port.
Consider the following network:
_ external ref='advanced-networking/static-routes' md5='__failed__'

| ( Default Router to Internet
|Interface xl0
| | RouterA
| | (FreeBSD gateway)
| Interface xl1
Internal Net 1 |
| | RouterB
| |
Internal Net 2
In this scenario, <systemitem>RouterA</systemitem> is a FreeBSD machine that is acting as a router to the rest of the Internet. It has a default route set to <systemitem class="ipaddress"></systemitem> which allows it to connect with the outside world. <systemitem>RouterB</systemitem> is already configured to use <systemitem class="ipaddress"></systemitem> as its default gateway.
Before adding any static routes, the routing table on <systemitem>RouterA</systemitem> looks like this:
<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>netstat -nr</userinput>
Routing tables

Destination Gateway Flags Refs Use Netif Expire
default UGS 0 49378 xl0 UH 0 6 lo0 link#1 UC 0 0 xl0 link#2 UC 0 0 xl1
With the current routing table, <systemitem>RouterA</systemitem> does not have a route to the <systemitem class="ipaddress"></systemitem> network. The following command adds the <literal>Internal Net 2</literal> network to <systemitem>RouterA</systemitem>'s routing table using <systemitem class="ipaddress"></systemitem> as the next hop:
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>route add -net</userinput>
Now, <systemitem>RouterA</systemitem> can reach any host on the <systemitem class="ipaddress"></systemitem> network. However, the routing information will not persist if the FreeBSD system reboots. If a static route needs to be persistent, add it to <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>:
# Add Internal Net 2 as a persistent static route
The <literal>static_routes</literal> configuration variable is a list of strings separated by a space, where each string references a route name. The variable <literal>route_<replaceable>internalnet2</replaceable></literal> contains the static route for that route name.
Using more than one string in <literal>static_routes</literal> creates multiple static routes. The following shows an example of adding static routes for the <systemitem class="ipaddress"></systemitem> and <systemitem class="ipaddress"></systemitem> networks:
static_routes="net1 net2"


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(itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
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books/es_ES/handbook.po, string 10566