(itstool) path: sect2/title
Designing the Partition Layout
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<literal>src</literal> - The complete FreeBSD source code for both the kernel and the userland. Although not required for the majority of applications, it may be required to build device drivers, kernel modules, or some applications from the Ports Collection. It is also used for developing FreeBSD itself. The full source tree requires 1 GB of disk space and recompiling the entire FreeBSD system requires an additional 5 GB of space.
<literal>tests</literal> - FreeBSD Test Suite.
Installing from the Network
The menu shown in <xref linkend="bsdinstall-netinstall-notify"/> only appears when installing from a <filename>-bootonly.iso</filename> or <filename>-mini-memstick.img</filename> as this installation media does not hold copies of the installation files. Since the installation files must be retrieved over a network connection, this menu indicates that the network interface must be configured first. If this menu is shown in any step of the process remember to follow the instructions in <xref linkend="bsdinstall-config-network-dev"/>.
_ external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-netinstall-files' md5='__failed__'
Allocating Disk Space
The next menu is used to determine the method for allocating disk space.
Partitioning Choices
_ external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-zfs-partmenu' md5='__failed__'
<application>bsdinstall</application> gives the user four methods for allocating disk space:
<literal>Auto (UFS)</literal> partitioning automatically sets up the disk partitions using the <literal>UFS</literal> file system.
<literal>Manual</literal> partitioning allows advanced users to create customized partitions from menu options.
<literal>Shell</literal> opens a shell prompt where advanced users can create customized partitions using command-line utilities like <citerefentry><refentrytitle>gpart</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>, <citerefentry><refentrytitle>fdisk</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>, and <citerefentry><refentrytitle>bsdlabel</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>.
<literal>Auto (ZFS)</literal> partitioning creates a root-on-ZFS system with optional GELI encryption support for <firstterm>boot environments</firstterm>.
This section describes what to consider when laying out the disk partitions. It then demonstrates how to use the different partitioning methods.
Designing the Partition Layout
<primary>partition layout</primary>
When laying out file systems, remember that hard drives transfer data faster from the outer tracks to the inner. Thus, smaller and heavier-accessed file systems should be closer to the outside of the drive, while larger partitions like <filename>/usr</filename> should be placed toward the inner parts of the disk. It is a good idea to create partitions in an order similar to: <filename>/</filename>, swap, <filename>/var</filename>, and <filename>/usr</filename>.
The size of the <filename>/var</filename> partition reflects the intended machine's usage. This partition is used to hold mailboxes, log files, and printer spools. Mailboxes and log files can grow to unexpected sizes depending on the number of users and how long log files are kept. On average, most users rarely need more than about a gigabyte of free disk space in <filename>/var</filename>.
Sometimes, a lot of disk space is required in <filename>/var/tmp</filename>. When new software is installed, the packaging tools extract a temporary copy of the packages under <filename>/var/tmp</filename>. Large software packages, like <application>Firefox</application> or <application>LibreOffice</application> may be tricky to install if there is not enough disk space under <filename>/var/tmp</filename>.
The <filename>/usr</filename> partition holds many of the files which support the system, including the FreeBSD Ports Collection and system source code. At least 2 gigabytes of space is recommended for this partition.
When selecting partition sizes, keep the space requirements in mind. Running out of space in one partition while barely using another can be a hassle.
<primary>swap sizing</primary>
<primary>swap partition</primary>
As a rule of thumb, the swap partition should be about double the size of physical memory (<acronym>RAM</acronym>). Systems with minimal <acronym>RAM</acronym> may perform better with more swap. Configuring too little swap can lead to inefficiencies in the <acronym>VM</acronym> page scanning code and might create issues later if more memory is added.
On larger systems with multiple <acronym>SCSI</acronym> disks or multiple <acronym>IDE</acronym> disks operating on different controllers, it is recommended that swap be configured on each drive, up to four drives. The swap partitions should be approximately the same size. The kernel can handle arbitrary sizes but internal data structures scale to 4 times the largest swap partition. Keeping the swap partitions near the same size will allow the kernel to optimally stripe swap space across disks. Large swap sizes are fine, even if swap is not used much. It might be easier to recover from a runaway program before being forced to reboot.
By properly partitioning a system, fragmentation introduced in the smaller write heavy partitions will not bleed over into the mostly read partitions. Keeping the write loaded partitions closer to the disk's edge will increase <acronym>I/O</acronym> performance in the partitions where it occurs the most. While <acronym>I/O</acronym> performance in the larger partitions may be needed, shifting them more toward the edge of the disk will not lead to a significant performance improvement over moving <filename>/var</filename> to the edge.
Guided Partitioning Using UFS


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