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<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pkg install heimdal</userinput>
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<personname> <firstname>Mark</firstname> <surname>Murray</surname> </personname> <contrib>Based on a contribution by </contrib>
<application>Kerberos</application> is a network authentication protocol which was originally created by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (<acronym>MIT</acronym>) as a way to securely provide authentication across a potentially hostile network. The <application>Kerberos</application> protocol uses strong cryptography so that both a client and server can prove their identity without sending any unencrypted secrets over the network. <application>Kerberos</application> can be described as an identity-verifying proxy system and as a trusted third-party authentication system. After a user authenticates with <application>Kerberos</application>, their communications can be encrypted to assure privacy and data integrity.
The only function of <application>Kerberos</application> is to provide the secure authentication of users and servers on the network. It does not provide authorization or auditing functions. It is recommended that <application>Kerberos</application> be used with other security methods which provide authorization and audit services.
The current version of the protocol is version 5, described in <acronym>RFC</acronym> 4120. Several free implementations of this protocol are available, covering a wide range of operating systems. <acronym>MIT</acronym> continues to develop their <application>Kerberos</application> package. It is commonly used in the <acronym>US</acronym> as a cryptography product, and has historically been subject to <acronym>US</acronym> export regulations. In FreeBSD, <acronym>MIT</acronym> <application>Kerberos</application> is available as the <package>security/krb5</package> package or port. The Heimdal <application>Kerberos</application> implementation was explicitly developed outside of the <acronym>US</acronym> to avoid export regulations. The Heimdal <application>Kerberos</application> distribution is included in the base FreeBSD installation, and another distribution with more configurable options is available as <package>security/heimdal</package> in the Ports Collection.
In <application>Kerberos</application> users and services are identified as <quote>principals</quote> which are contained within an administrative grouping, called a <quote>realm</quote>. A typical user principal would be of the form <literal><replaceable>user</replaceable>@<replaceable>REALM</replaceable></literal> (realms are traditionally uppercase).
This section provides a guide on how to set up <application>Kerberos</application> using the Heimdal distribution included in FreeBSD.
For purposes of demonstrating a <application>Kerberos</application> installation, the name spaces will be as follows:
The <acronym>DNS</acronym> domain (zone) will be <systemitem class="fqdomainname">example.org</systemitem>.
The <application>Kerberos</application> realm will be <literal>EXAMPLE.ORG</literal>.
Use real domain names when setting up <application>Kerberos</application>, even if it will run internally. This avoids <acronym>DNS</acronym> problems and assures inter-operation with other <application>Kerberos</application> realms.
Setting up a Heimdal <acronym>KDC</acronym>
<primary>Kerberos5</primary> <secondary>Key Distribution Center</secondary>
The Key Distribution Center (<acronym>KDC</acronym>) is the centralized authentication service that <application>Kerberos</application> provides, the <quote>trusted third party</quote> of the system. It is the computer that issues <application>Kerberos</application> tickets, which are used for clients to authenticate to servers. Because the <acronym>KDC</acronym> is considered trusted by all other computers in the <application>Kerberos</application> realm, it has heightened security concerns. Direct access to the KDC should be limited.
While running a <acronym>KDC</acronym> requires few computing resources, a dedicated machine acting only as a <acronym>KDC</acronym> is recommended for security reasons.
To begin, install the <package>security/heimdal</package> package as follows:
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pkg install heimdal</userinput> <prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pkg install heimdal</userinput>
Next, update <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> using <command>sysrc</command> as follows:
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>sysrc kdc_enable=yes</userinput>
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>sysrc kadmind_enable=yes</userinput>
Next, edit <filename>/etc/krb5.conf</filename> as follows:
[libdefaults]
default_realm = <replaceable>EXAMPLE.ORG</replaceable>
[realms]
<replaceable>EXAMPLE.ORG</replaceable> = {
kdc = <replaceable>kerberos.example.org</replaceable>
admin_server = <replaceable>kerberos.example.org</replaceable>
}
[domain_realm]
<replaceable>.example.org</replaceable> = <replaceable>EXAMPLE.ORG</replaceable>
In this example, the <acronym>KDC</acronym> will use the fully-qualified hostname <systemitem class="fqdomainname">kerberos.example.org</systemitem>. The hostname of the KDC must be resolvable in the <acronym>DNS</acronym>.
<application>Kerberos</application> can also use the <acronym>DNS</acronym> to locate KDCs, instead of a <literal>[realms]</literal> section in <filename>/etc/krb5.conf</filename>. For large organizations that have their own <acronym>DNS</acronym> servers, the above example could be trimmed to:
[libdefaults]
default_realm = <replaceable>EXAMPLE.ORG</replaceable>
[domain_realm]
<replaceable>.example.org</replaceable> = <replaceable>EXAMPLE.ORG</replaceable>
With the following lines being included in the <systemitem class="fqdomainname">example.org</systemitem> zone file:
_kerberos._udp IN SRV 01 00 88 <replaceable>kerberos.example.org</replaceable>.
_kerberos._tcp IN SRV 01 00 88 <replaceable>kerberos.example.org</replaceable>.
_kpasswd._udp IN SRV 01 00 464 <replaceable>kerberos.example.org</replaceable>.
_kerberos-adm._tcp IN SRV 01 00 749 <replaceable>kerberos.example.org</replaceable>.
_kerberos IN TXT <replaceable>EXAMPLE.ORG</replaceable>
In order for clients to be able to find the <application>Kerberos</application> services, they <emphasis>must</emphasis> have either a fully configured <filename>/etc/krb5.conf</filename> or a minimally configured <filename>/etc/krb5.conf</filename> <emphasis>and</emphasis> a properly configured <acronym>DNS</acronym> server.
Next, create the <application>Kerberos</application> database which contains the keys of all principals (users and hosts) encrypted with a master password. It is not required to remember this password as it will be stored in <filename>/var/heimdal/m-key</filename>; it would be reasonable to use a 45-character random password for this purpose. To create the master key, run <command>kstash</command> and enter a password:
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>kstash</userinput>
Master key: <userinput><replaceable>xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx</replaceable></userinput>
Verifying password - Master key: <userinput><replaceable>xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx</replaceable></userinput>
Once the master key has been created, the database should be initialized. The <application>Kerberos</application> administrative tool <citerefentry><refentrytitle>kadmin</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> can be used on the KDC in a mode that operates directly on the database, without using the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>kadmind</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> network service, as <command>kadmin -l</command>. This resolves the chicken-and-egg problem of trying to connect to the database before it is created. At the <command>kadmin</command> prompt, use <command>init</command> to create the realm's initial database:
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>kadmin -l</userinput>
kadmin&gt; <userinput>init <replaceable>EXAMPLE.ORG</replaceable></userinput>
Realm max ticket life [unlimited]:
Lastly, while still in <command>kadmin</command>, create the first principal using <command>add</command>. Stick to the default options for the principal for now, as these can be changed later with <command>modify</command>. Type <literal>?</literal> at the prompt to see the available options.

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<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pkg install heimdal</userinput>
<prompt>%#</prompt> <userinput>toppkg install heimdal</userinput>
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(itstool) path: sect2/screen
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books/fa/handbook.po, string 4058