Translation

(itstool) path: sect2/para
English
The <literal>filename</literal> directive defines the path to <filename>/boot/pxeboot</filename>. A relative filename is used, meaning that <filename>/b/tftpboot</filename> is not included in the path.
215/2010
Context English Portuguese (Brazil) State
Replace <replaceable>myhost.example.com</replaceable> with the hostname or <acronym>IP</acronym> address of the <acronym>NFS</acronym> server. In this example, the root file system is mounted read-only in order to prevent <acronym>NFS</acronym> clients from potentially deleting the contents of the root file system. Substitua <replaceable>myhost.example.com</replaceable> pelo nome do host ou pelo endereço <acronym>IP</acronym> do servidor <acronym>NFS</acronym>. Neste exemplo, o sistema de arquivos raiz é montado como somente leitura para evitar que os clientes do <acronym>NFS</acronym> excluam potencialmente o conteúdo do sistema de arquivos raiz.
Set the root password in the <acronym>PXE</acronym> environment for client machines which are <acronym>PXE</acronym> booting : Defina a senha de root no ambiente <acronym>PXE</acronym> para as máquinas clientes que serão inicializadas por <acronym>PXE</acronym>:
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>chroot ${NFSROOTDIR}</userinput>
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>passwd</userinput>
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>chroot ${NFSROOTDIR}</userinput>
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>passwd</userinput>
If needed, enable <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ssh</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> root logins for client machines which are <acronym>PXE</acronym> booting by editing <filename>${NFSROOTDIR}/etc/ssh/sshd_config</filename> and enabling <literal>PermitRootLogin</literal>. This option is documented in <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sshd_config</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>. Se necessário, ative o login do root via <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ssh</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> para as máquinas clientes que estão inicializando por <acronym>PXE</acronym> editando o <filename>${NFSROOTDIR}/etc/ssh/sshd_config</filename> e habilitando o <literal>PermitRootLogin</literal>. Esta opção está documentada em <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sshd_config</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>.
Perform any other needed customizations of the <acronym>PXE</acronym> environment in <filename>${NFSROOTDIR}</filename>. These customizations could include things like installing packages or editing the password file with <citerefentry><refentrytitle>vipw</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>. Execute qualquer outra customização necessária do ambiente <acronym>PXE</acronym> no <filename>${NFSROOTDIR}</filename>. Estas customizações podem incluir coisas como instalar pacotes ou editar o arquivo de senha com o <citerefentry><refentrytitle>vipw</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>.
When booting from an <acronym>NFS</acronym> root volume, <filename>/etc/rc</filename> detects the <acronym>NFS</acronym> boot and runs <filename>/etc/rc.initdiskless</filename>. In this case, <filename>/etc</filename> and <filename>/var</filename> need to be memory backed file systems so that these directories are writable but the <acronym>NFS</acronym> root directory is read-only: Ao inicializar de um volume raiz <acronym>NFS</acronym>, o <filename>/etc/rc</filename> detecta a inicialização do <acronym>NFS</acronym> e executa o <filename>/etc/rc.initdiskless</filename>. Neste caso, o <filename>/etc</filename> e <filename>/var</filename> precisam ser sistemas de arquivos montados em memória para que estes diretórios sejam graváveis mas o diretório raiz <acronym>NFS</acronym> seja apenas de leitura:
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>chroot ${NFSROOTDIR}</userinput>
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>mkdir -p conf/base</userinput>
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>tar -c -v -f conf/base/etc.cpio.gz --format cpio --gzip etc</userinput>
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>tar -c -v -f conf/base/var.cpio.gz --format cpio --gzip var</userinput>
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>chroot ${NFSROOTDIR}</userinput>
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>mkdir -p conf/base</userinput>
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>tar -c -v -f conf/base/etc.cpio.gz --format cpio --gzip etc</userinput>
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>tar -c -v -f conf/base/var.cpio.gz --format cpio --gzip var</userinput>
When the system boots, memory file systems for <filename>/etc</filename> and <filename>/var</filename> will be created and mounted and the contents of the <filename>cpio.gz</filename> files will be copied into them. By default, these file systems have a maximum capacity of 5 megabytes. If your archives do not fit, which is usually the case for <filename>/var</filename> when binary packages have been installed, request a larger size by putting the number of 512 byte sectors needed (e.g., 5 megabytes is 10240 sectors) in <filename>${NFSROOTDIR}/conf/base/etc/md_size</filename> and <filename>${NFSROOTDIR}/conf/base/var/md_size</filename> files for <filename>/etc</filename> and <filename>/var</filename> file systems respectively. Quando o sistema inicializar, os sistemas de arquivos em memória para o <filename>/etc</filename> e o <filename>/var</filename> serão criados e montados e o conteúdo dos arquivos <filename>cpio.gz</filename> será
copiado para eles. Por padrão, esses sistemas de arquivos têm uma capacidade máxima de 5 megabytes. Se seus arquivos não couberem, o que geralmente é o caso do <filename>/var</filename> quando pacotes binários foram instalados, solicite um tamanho maior colocando o número de setores de 512 bytes necessários (por exemplo, 5 megabytes é 10240 setores) nos arquivos <filename>${NFSROOTDIR}/conf/base/etc/md_size</filename> e <filename>${NFSROOTDIR}/conf/base/var/md_size</filename> para os sistemas de arquivos <filename>/etc</filename> e o <filename>/var</filename> respectivamente.
Configuring the <acronym>DHCP</acronym> Server Configurando o servidor <acronym>DHCP</acronym>
<primary>DHCP</primary> <secondary>diskless operation</secondary> <primary>DHCP</primary> <secondary>diskless operation</secondary>
The <acronym>DHCP</acronym> server does not need to be the same machine as the <acronym>TFTP</acronym> and <acronym>NFS</acronym> server, but it needs to be accessible in the network. O servidor <acronym>DHCP</acronym> não precisa ser a mesma máquina que o servidor <acronym>TFTP</acronym> e <acronym>NFS</acronym>, mas ele precisa estar acessível na rede.
<acronym>DHCP</acronym> is not part of the FreeBSD base system but can be installed using the <package>net/isc-dhcp43-server</package> port or package. O <acronym>DHCP</acronym> não faz parte do sistema básico do FreeBSD, mas pode ser instalado usando o port ou pacote <package>net/isc-dhcp43-server</package>.
Once installed, edit the configuration file, <filename>/usr/local/etc/dhcpd.conf</filename>. Configure the <literal>next-server</literal>, <literal>filename</literal>, and <literal>root-path</literal> settings as seen in this example: Uma vez instalado, edite o arquivo de configuração, <filename>/usr/local/etc/dhcpd.conf</filename>. Configure as diretivas <literal>next-server</literal>, <literal>filename</literal> e <literal>root-path</literal> conforme mostrado neste exemplo:
subnet 192.168.0.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 {
range 192.168.0.2 192.168.0.3 ;
option subnet-mask 255.255.255.0 ;
option routers 192.168.0.1 ;
option broadcast-address 192.168.0.255 ;
option domain-name-servers 192.168.35.35, 192.168.35.36 ;
option domain-name "example.com";

# IP address of TFTP server
next-server <replaceable>192.168.0.1</replaceable> ;

# path of boot loader obtained via tftp
filename "<replaceable>FreeBSD/install/boot/pxeboot</replaceable>" ;

# pxeboot boot loader will try to NFS mount this directory for root FS
option root-path "<replaceable>192.168.0.1:/b/tftpboot/FreeBSD/install/</replaceable>" ;

}
subnet 192.168.0.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 {
range 192.168.0.2 192.168.0.3 ;
option subnet-mask 255.255.255.0 ;
option routers 192.168.0.1 ;
option broadcast-address 192.168.0.255 ;
option domain-name-servers 192.168.35.35, 192.168.35.36 ;
option domain-name "example.com";

# IP address of TFTP server
next-server <replaceable>192.168.0.1</replaceable> ;

# path of boot loader obtained via tftp
filename "<replaceable>FreeBSD/install/boot/pxeboot</replaceable>" ;

# pxeboot boot loader will try to NFS mount this directory for root FS
option root-path "<replaceable>192.168.0.1:/b/tftpboot/FreeBSD/install/</replaceable>" ;

}
The <literal>next-server</literal> directive is used to specify the <acronym>IP</acronym> address of the <acronym>TFTP</acronym> server. A diretiva <literal>next-server</literal> é usada para especificar o endereço <acronym>IP</acronym> do servidor <acronym>TFTP</acronym>.
The <literal>filename</literal> directive defines the path to <filename>/boot/pxeboot</filename>. A relative filename is used, meaning that <filename>/b/tftpboot</filename> is not included in the path. A diretiva <literal>filename</literal> define o caminho para o <filename>/boot/pxeboot</filename>. Um nome de arquivo relativo é usado, significando que <filename>/b/tftpboot</filename> não está incluído no caminho.
The <literal>root-path</literal> option defines the path to the <acronym>NFS</acronym> root file system. A diretiva <literal>root-path</literal> define o caminho para o sistema de arquivos raiz a ser montado por <acronym>NFS</acronym>.
Once the edits are saved, enable <acronym>DHCP</acronym> at boot time by adding the following line to <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>: Depois que as edições forem salvas, ative o <acronym>DHCP</acronym> no momento da inicialização adicionando a seguinte linha ao <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>:
dhcpd_enable="YES" dhcpd_enable="YES"
Then start the <acronym>DHCP</acronym> service: Então inicie o serviço <acronym>DHCP</acronym>:
Debugging <acronym>PXE</acronym> Problems Depurando problemas de <acronym>PXE</acronym>
Once all of the services are configured and started, <acronym>PXE</acronym> clients should be able to automatically load FreeBSD over the network. If a particular client is unable to connect, when that client machine boots up, enter the <acronym>BIOS</acronym> configuration menu and confirm that it is set to boot from the network. Uma vez que todos os serviços estejam configurados e iniciados, os clientes de <acronym>PXE</acronym> devem poder carregar automaticamente o FreeBSD pela rede. Se um determinado cliente não conseguir se conectar, quando a máquina cliente inicializar, entre no menu de configuração da <acronym>BIOS</acronym> e confirme se ela está configurada para inicializar a partir da rede.
This section describes some troubleshooting tips for isolating the source of the configuration problem should no clients be able to <acronym>PXE</acronym> boot. Esta seção descreve algumas dicas de solução de problemas para isolar a origem do problema de configuração, caso nenhum cliente seja capaz de inicializar o <acronym>PXE</acronym>.
Use the <package>net/wireshark</package> package or port to debug the network traffic involved during the <acronym>PXE</acronym> booting process, which is illustrated in the diagram below. Use o pacote ou port <package>net/wireshark</package> para depurar o tráfego de rede envolvido durante o processo de inicialização do <acronym>PXE</acronym>, que está ilustrado no diagrama abaixo.
<acronym>PXE</acronym> Booting Process with <acronym>NFS</acronym> Root Mount Processo de inicialização <acronym>PXE</acronym> com o sistema de arquivos raiz montado por <acronym>NFS</acronym>
_ external ref='advanced-networking/pxe-nfs' md5='__failed__' external ref='advanced-networking/pxe-nfs' md5='__failed__'
Client broadcasts a <literal>DHCPDISCOVER</literal> message. O cliente transmite uma mensagem <literal>DHCPDISCOVER</literal>.
The <acronym>DHCP</acronym> server responds with the <acronym>IP</acronym> address, <literal>next-server</literal>, <literal>filename</literal>, and <literal>root-path</literal> values. O servidor <acronym>DHCP</acronym> responde com as informações de endereço <acronym>IP</acronym>, <literal>next-server</literal>, <literal>filename</literal> e <literal>root-path</literal>.
The client sends a <acronym>TFTP</acronym> request to <literal>next-server</literal>, asking to retrieve <literal>filename</literal>. O cliente envia uma solicitação <acronym>TFTP</acronym> para o <literal>next-server</literal>, solicitando acesso ao <literal>filename</literal>.
The <acronym>TFTP</acronym> server responds and sends <literal>filename</literal> to client. O servidor <acronym>TFTP</acronym> responde e envia o <literal>filename</literal> para o cliente.
The client executes <literal>filename</literal>, which is <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pxeboot</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>, which then loads the kernel. When the kernel executes, the root file system specified by <literal>root-path</literal> is mounted over <acronym>NFS</acronym>. O cliente executa o <literal>filename</literal>, que é o <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pxeboot</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>, o qual então carrega o kernel. Quando o kernel é executado, o sistema de arquivos raiz especificado por <literal>root-path</literal> é montado sobre o <acronym>NFS</acronym>.

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Glossary

English Portuguese (Brazil)
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Source information

Source string comment
(itstool) path: sect2/para
Source string location
book.translate.xml:65535
String age
a year ago
Source string age
a year ago
Translation file
books/pt_BR/handbook.po, string 11146