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(itstool) path: sect2/para
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This section describes some troubleshooting tips for isolating the source of the configuration problem should no clients be able to <acronym>PXE</acronym> boot.
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When the system boots, memory file systems for <filename>/etc</filename> and <filename>/var</filename> will be created and mounted and the contents of the <filename>cpio.gz</filename> files will be copied into them. By default, these file systems have a maximum capacity of 5 megabytes. If your archives do not fit, which is usually the case for <filename>/var</filename> when binary packages have been installed, request a larger size by putting the number of 512 byte sectors needed (e.g., 5 megabytes is 10240 sectors) in <filename>${NFSROOTDIR}/conf/base/etc/md_size</filename> and <filename>${NFSROOTDIR}/conf/base/var/md_size</filename> files for <filename>/etc</filename> and <filename>/var</filename> file systems respectively. Quando o sistema inicializar, os sistemas de arquivos em memória para o <filename>/etc</filename> e o <filename>/var</filename> serão criados e montados e o conteúdo dos arquivos <filename>cpio.gz</filename> será
copiado para eles. Por padrão, esses sistemas de arquivos têm uma capacidade máxima de 5 megabytes. Se seus arquivos não couberem, o que geralmente é o caso do <filename>/var</filename> quando pacotes binários foram instalados, solicite um tamanho maior colocando o número de setores de 512 bytes necessários (por exemplo, 5 megabytes é 10240 setores) nos arquivos <filename>${NFSROOTDIR}/conf/base/etc/md_size</filename> e <filename>${NFSROOTDIR}/conf/base/var/md_size</filename> para os sistemas de arquivos <filename>/etc</filename> e o <filename>/var</filename> respectivamente.
Configuring the <acronym>DHCP</acronym> Server Configurando o servidor <acronym>DHCP</acronym>
<primary>DHCP</primary> <secondary>diskless operation</secondary> <primary>DHCP</primary> <secondary>diskless operation</secondary>
The <acronym>DHCP</acronym> server does not need to be the same machine as the <acronym>TFTP</acronym> and <acronym>NFS</acronym> server, but it needs to be accessible in the network. O servidor <acronym>DHCP</acronym> não precisa ser a mesma máquina que o servidor <acronym>TFTP</acronym> e <acronym>NFS</acronym>, mas ele precisa estar acessível na rede.
<acronym>DHCP</acronym> is not part of the FreeBSD base system but can be installed using the <package>net/isc-dhcp43-server</package> port or package. O <acronym>DHCP</acronym> não faz parte do sistema básico do FreeBSD, mas pode ser instalado usando o port ou pacote <package>net/isc-dhcp43-server</package>.
Once installed, edit the configuration file, <filename>/usr/local/etc/dhcpd.conf</filename>. Configure the <literal>next-server</literal>, <literal>filename</literal>, and <literal>root-path</literal> settings as seen in this example: Uma vez instalado, edite o arquivo de configuração, <filename>/usr/local/etc/dhcpd.conf</filename>. Configure as diretivas <literal>next-server</literal>, <literal>filename</literal> e <literal>root-path</literal> conforme mostrado neste exemplo:
subnet 192.168.0.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 {
range 192.168.0.2 192.168.0.3 ;
option subnet-mask 255.255.255.0 ;
option routers 192.168.0.1 ;
option broadcast-address 192.168.0.255 ;
option domain-name-servers 192.168.35.35, 192.168.35.36 ;
option domain-name "example.com";

# IP address of TFTP server
next-server <replaceable>192.168.0.1</replaceable> ;

# path of boot loader obtained via tftp
filename "<replaceable>FreeBSD/install/boot/pxeboot</replaceable>" ;

# pxeboot boot loader will try to NFS mount this directory for root FS
option root-path "<replaceable>192.168.0.1:/b/tftpboot/FreeBSD/install/</replaceable>" ;

}
subnet 192.168.0.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 {
range 192.168.0.2 192.168.0.3 ;
option subnet-mask 255.255.255.0 ;
option routers 192.168.0.1 ;
option broadcast-address 192.168.0.255 ;
option domain-name-servers 192.168.35.35, 192.168.35.36 ;
option domain-name "example.com";

# IP address of TFTP server
next-server <replaceable>192.168.0.1</replaceable> ;

# path of boot loader obtained via tftp
filename "<replaceable>FreeBSD/install/boot/pxeboot</replaceable>" ;

# pxeboot boot loader will try to NFS mount this directory for root FS
option root-path "<replaceable>192.168.0.1:/b/tftpboot/FreeBSD/install/</replaceable>" ;

}
The <literal>next-server</literal> directive is used to specify the <acronym>IP</acronym> address of the <acronym>TFTP</acronym> server. A diretiva <literal>next-server</literal> é usada para especificar o endereço <acronym>IP</acronym> do servidor <acronym>TFTP</acronym>.
The <literal>filename</literal> directive defines the path to <filename>/boot/pxeboot</filename>. A relative filename is used, meaning that <filename>/b/tftpboot</filename> is not included in the path. A diretiva <literal>filename</literal> define o caminho para o <filename>/boot/pxeboot</filename>. Um nome de arquivo relativo é usado, significando que <filename>/b/tftpboot</filename> não está incluído no caminho.
The <literal>root-path</literal> option defines the path to the <acronym>NFS</acronym> root file system. A diretiva <literal>root-path</literal> define o caminho para o sistema de arquivos raiz a ser montado por <acronym>NFS</acronym>.
Once the edits are saved, enable <acronym>DHCP</acronym> at boot time by adding the following line to <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>: Depois que as edições forem salvas, ative o <acronym>DHCP</acronym> no momento da inicialização adicionando a seguinte linha ao <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>:
dhcpd_enable="YES" dhcpd_enable="YES"
Then start the <acronym>DHCP</acronym> service: Então inicie o serviço <acronym>DHCP</acronym>:
Debugging <acronym>PXE</acronym> Problems Depurando problemas de <acronym>PXE</acronym>
Once all of the services are configured and started, <acronym>PXE</acronym> clients should be able to automatically load FreeBSD over the network. If a particular client is unable to connect, when that client machine boots up, enter the <acronym>BIOS</acronym> configuration menu and confirm that it is set to boot from the network. Uma vez que todos os serviços estejam configurados e iniciados, os clientes de <acronym>PXE</acronym> devem poder carregar automaticamente o FreeBSD pela rede. Se um determinado cliente não conseguir se conectar, quando a máquina cliente inicializar, entre no menu de configuração da <acronym>BIOS</acronym> e confirme se ela está configurada para inicializar a partir da rede.
This section describes some troubleshooting tips for isolating the source of the configuration problem should no clients be able to <acronym>PXE</acronym> boot. Esta seção descreve algumas dicas de solução de problemas para isolar a origem do problema de configuração, caso nenhum cliente seja capaz de inicializar o <acronym>PXE</acronym>.
Use the <package>net/wireshark</package> package or port to debug the network traffic involved during the <acronym>PXE</acronym> booting process, which is illustrated in the diagram below. Use o pacote ou port <package>net/wireshark</package> para depurar o tráfego de rede envolvido durante o processo de inicialização do <acronym>PXE</acronym>, que está ilustrado no diagrama abaixo.
<acronym>PXE</acronym> Booting Process with <acronym>NFS</acronym> Root Mount Processo de inicialização <acronym>PXE</acronym> com o sistema de arquivos raiz montado por <acronym>NFS</acronym>
_ external ref='advanced-networking/pxe-nfs' md5='__failed__' external ref='advanced-networking/pxe-nfs' md5='__failed__'
Client broadcasts a <literal>DHCPDISCOVER</literal> message. O cliente transmite uma mensagem <literal>DHCPDISCOVER</literal>.
The <acronym>DHCP</acronym> server responds with the <acronym>IP</acronym> address, <literal>next-server</literal>, <literal>filename</literal>, and <literal>root-path</literal> values. O servidor <acronym>DHCP</acronym> responde com as informações de endereço <acronym>IP</acronym>, <literal>next-server</literal>, <literal>filename</literal> e <literal>root-path</literal>.
The client sends a <acronym>TFTP</acronym> request to <literal>next-server</literal>, asking to retrieve <literal>filename</literal>. O cliente envia uma solicitação <acronym>TFTP</acronym> para o <literal>next-server</literal>, solicitando acesso ao <literal>filename</literal>.
The <acronym>TFTP</acronym> server responds and sends <literal>filename</literal> to client. O servidor <acronym>TFTP</acronym> responde e envia o <literal>filename</literal> para o cliente.
The client executes <literal>filename</literal>, which is <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pxeboot</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>, which then loads the kernel. When the kernel executes, the root file system specified by <literal>root-path</literal> is mounted over <acronym>NFS</acronym>. O cliente executa o <literal>filename</literal>, que é o <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pxeboot</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>, o qual então carrega o kernel. Quando o kernel é executado, o sistema de arquivos raiz especificado por <literal>root-path</literal> é montado sobre o <acronym>NFS</acronym>.
On the <acronym>TFTP</acronym> server, read <filename>/var/log/xferlog</filename> to ensure that <filename>pxeboot</filename> is being retrieved from the correct location. To test this example configuration: No servidor <acronym>TFTP</acronym>, leia o <filename>/var/log/xferlog</filename> para garantir que o <filename>pxeboot</filename> esteja sendo recuperado do local correto. Para testar esta configuração de exemplo:
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>tftp 192.168.0.1</userinput>
tftp&gt; <userinput>get FreeBSD/install/boot/pxeboot</userinput>
Received 264951 bytes in 0.1 seconds
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>tftp 192.168.0.1</userinput>
tftp&gt; <userinput>get FreeBSD/install/boot/pxeboot</userinput>
Received 264951 bytes in 0.1 seconds
The <literal>BUGS</literal> sections in <citerefentry><refentrytitle>tftpd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> and <citerefentry><refentrytitle>tftp</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> document some limitations with <acronym>TFTP</acronym>. As seções de <literal>BUGS</literal> do <citerefentry><refentrytitle>tftpd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> e <citerefentry><refentrytitle>tftp</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> documenta algumas limitações com o <acronym>TFTP</acronym>.
Make sure that the root file system can be mounted via <acronym>NFS</acronym>. To test this example configuration: Certifique-se de que o sistema de arquivos raiz possa ser montado via <acronym>NFS</acronym>. Para testar esta configuração de exemplo:
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>mount -t nfs 192.168.0.1:/b/tftpboot/FreeBSD/install /mnt</userinput> <prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>mount -t nfs 192.168.0.1:/b/tftpboot/FreeBSD/install /mnt</userinput>
<acronym>IPv6</acronym> <acronym>IPv6</acronym>
<personname> <firstname>Aaron</firstname> <surname>Kaplan</surname> </personname> <contrib>Originally Written by </contrib> <personname> <firstname> Aaron </firstname> <surname> Kaplan </surname> </personname> <contrib> Originalmente escrito por </contrib>

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English Portuguese (Brazil)
Open Source Project Projeto Open Source FreeBSD Doc

Source information

Source string comment
(itstool) path: sect2/para
Source string location
book.translate.xml:65535
String age
a year ago
Source string age
a year ago
Translation file
books/pt_BR/handbook.po, string 11153