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(itstool) path: sect2/programlisting
bsnmpd_enable="YES"
19/190
Context English Turkish (tr_TR) State
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>ifconfig bridge0 addm vlan100 sticky vlan100 addm vlan101 sticky vlan101</userinput>
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>ifconfig bridge0 inet 192.168.0.1/24</userinput>
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>ifconfig bridge0 addm vlan100 sticky vlan100 addm vlan101 sticky vlan101</userinput>
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>ifconfig bridge0 inet 192.168.0.1/24</userinput>
In this example, both clients see <systemitem class="ipaddress">192.168.0.1</systemitem> as their default gateway. Since the bridge cache is sticky, one host cannot spoof the <acronym>MAC</acronym> address of the other customer in order to intercept their traffic. Bu örnekte, her iki istemci de varsayılan ağ geçidi olarak <systemitem class = "ipaddress"> 192.168.0.1 </systemitem> öğesini görür. Köprü önbelleği yapışkan olduğundan, bir ana bilgisayar trafiğini kesmek için diğer müşterinin <acronym> MAC </acronym> adresini taklit edemez.
Any communication between the <acronym>VLAN</acronym>s can be blocked using a firewall or, as seen in this example, private interfaces: <acronym> VLAN </acronym> lar arasındaki herhangi bir iletişim, bir güvenlik duvarı kullanılarak veya bu örnekte görüldüğü gibi özel arabirimler kullanılarak engellenebilir:
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>ifconfig bridge0 private vlan100 private vlan101</userinput> <prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>ifconfig bridge0 private vlan100 private vlan101</userinput>
The customers are completely isolated from each other and the full <systemitem class="netmask">/24</systemitem> address range can be allocated without subnetting. Müşteriler birbirlerinden tamamen yalıtılmış ve tam <systemitem class = "alt ağ maskesi"> / 24 </systemitem> adres aralığı alt ağ olmadan tahsis edilebilir.
The number of unique source <acronym>MAC</acronym> addresses behind an interface can be limited. Once the limit is reached, packets with unknown source addresses are dropped until an existing host cache entry expires or is removed. Bir arabirimin arkasındaki benzersiz kaynak <acronym> MAC </acronym> adreslerinin sayısı sınırlanabilir. Sınıra ulaşıldığında, kaynak adresleri bilinmeyen paketler mevcut bir ana bilgisayar önbellek girdisinin süresi doluncaya veya kaldırılana kadar bırakılır.
The following example sets the maximum number of Ethernet devices for <systemitem class="fqdomainname">CustomerA</systemitem> on <literal>vlan100</literal> to 10: Aşağıdaki örnek, <literal> vlan100 </literal> üzerindeki <systemitem class = "fqdomainname"> CustomerA </systemitem> için maksimum Ethernet cihazı sayısını 10 olarak ayarlar:
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>ifconfig bridge0 ifmaxaddr vlan100 10</userinput> <prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>ifconfig bridge0 ifmaxaddr vlan100 10</userinput>
Bridge interfaces also support monitor mode, where the packets are discarded after <citerefentry><refentrytitle>bpf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> processing and are not processed or forwarded further. This can be used to multiplex the input of two or more interfaces into a single <citerefentry><refentrytitle>bpf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> stream. This is useful for reconstructing the traffic for network taps that transmit the RX/TX signals out through two separate interfaces. For example, to read the input from four network interfaces as one stream: Köprü arayüzleri, paketlerin <citerefentry><refentrytitle>bpf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum> </citerefentry> işleminden sonra atıldığı ve daha fazla işlenmediği monitör modunu da destekler. Bu, iki veya daha fazla arabirimin girişini tek bir <citerefentry><refentrytitle>bpf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum> </citerefentry> akışına çoğaltmak için kullanılabilir. Bu, RX / TX sinyallerini iki ayrı arabirim üzerinden ileten ağ muslukları için trafiği yeniden yapılandırmak için kullanışlıdır. Örneğin, dört ağ arayüzünden gelen girişi tek akış olarak okumak için:
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>ifconfig bridge0 addm fxp0 addm fxp1 addm fxp2 addm fxp3 monitor up</userinput>
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>tcpdump -i bridge0</userinput>
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>ifconfig bridge0 addm fxp0 addm fxp1 addm fxp2 addm fxp3 monitor up</userinput>
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>tcpdump -i bridge0</userinput>
<acronym>SNMP</acronym> Monitoring <acronym>SNMP</acronym> gözlemleme
The bridge interface and <acronym>STP</acronym> parameters can be monitored via <citerefentry><refentrytitle>bsnmpd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> which is included in the FreeBSD base system. The exported bridge <acronym>MIB</acronym>s conform to <acronym>IETF</acronym> standards so any <acronym>SNMP</acronym> client or monitoring package can be used to retrieve the data. Köprü arayüzü ve <acronym> STP </acronym> parametreleri, FreeBSD temel sistemine dahil edilen <citerefentry><refentrytitle>bsnmpd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum> </citerefentry> ile izlenebilir. Dışa aktarılan köprü <acronym> MIB </acronym>, <acronym> IETF </acronym> standartlarına uygundur, böylece verileri almak için herhangi bir <acronym> SNMP </acronym> istemcisi veya izleme paketi kullanılabilir.
To enable monitoring on the bridge, uncomment this line in <filename>/etc/snmpd.config</filename> by removing the beginning <literal>#</literal> symbol: Köprüde izlemeyi etkinleştirmek için, başlangıç <literal> # </literal> sembolünü kaldırarak <filename> /etc/snmpd.config </filename> 'de bu satırın işaretini kaldırın:
begemotSnmpdModulePath."bridge" = "/usr/lib/snmp_bridge.so" begemotSnmpdModulePath."köprü" = "/usr/lib/snmp_bridge.so"
Other configuration settings, such as community names and access lists, may need to be modified in this file. See <citerefentry><refentrytitle>bsnmpd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> and <citerefentry><refentrytitle>snmp_bridge</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum></citerefentry> for more information. Once these edits are saved, add this line to <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>: Topluluk adları ve erişim listeleri gibi diğer yapılandırma ayarlarının bu dosyada değiştirilmesi gerekebilir. Bkz. <citerefentry><refentrytitle>bsnmpd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum> </citerefentry><manvolnum> 3 bilgi. Bu düzenlemeler kaydedildikten sonra, bu satırı <filename> /etc/rc.conf </filename> klasörüne ekleyin:
bsnmpd_enable="YES" bsnmpd_enable="YES"
Then, start <citerefentry><refentrytitle>bsnmpd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>: Ardından, <citerefentry><refentrytitle>bsnmpd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum> </citerefentry> 'i başlatın:
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>service bsnmpd start</userinput> <prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>service bsnmpd start</userinput>
The following examples use the <application>Net-SNMP</application> software (<package>net-mgmt/net-snmp</package>) to query a bridge from a client system. The <package>net-mgmt/bsnmptools</package> port can also be used. From the <acronym>SNMP</acronym> client which is running <application>Net-SNMP</application>, add the following lines to <filename>$HOME/.snmp/snmp.conf</filename> in order to import the bridge <acronym>MIB</acronym> definitions: Aşağıdaki örnekler, bir istemci sisteminden bir köprüyü sorgulamak için <application> Net-SNMP </application> yazılımını (<package> net-mgmt / net-snmp </package>) kullanır. <package> net-mgmt / bsnmptools </package> bağlantı noktası da kullanılabilir. <application> Net-SNMP </application> çalıştıran <acronym> SNMP </acronym> istemcisinden, içe aktarmak için aşağıdaki satırları <filename> $ HOME / .snmp / snmp.conf </filename> öğesine ekleyin. köprü <acronym> MIB </acronym> tanımları:
mibdirs +/usr/share/snmp/mibs
mibs +BRIDGE-MIB:RSTP-MIB:BEGEMOT-MIB:BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB
mibdirs +/usr/share/snmp/mibs
mibs +BRIDGE-MIB:RSTP-MIB:BEGEMOT-MIB:BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB
To monitor a single bridge using the IETF BRIDGE-MIB (RFC4188): IETF kulanarak tek bir körüyü gözlemlemek için BRIDGE-MIB (RFC4188):
<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>snmpwalk -v 2c -c public bridge1.example.com mib-2.dot1dBridge</userinput>
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dBaseBridgeAddress.0 = STRING: 66:fb:9b:6e:5c:44
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dBaseNumPorts.0 = INTEGER: 1 ports
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpTimeSinceTopologyChange.0 = Timeticks: (189959) 0:31:39.59 centi-seconds
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpTopChanges.0 = Counter32: 2
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpDesignatedRoot.0 = Hex-STRING: 80 00 00 01 02 4B D4 50
...
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpPortState.3 = INTEGER: forwarding(5)
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpPortEnable.3 = INTEGER: enabled(1)
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpPortPathCost.3 = INTEGER: 200000
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpPortDesignatedRoot.3 = Hex-STRING: 80 00 00 01 02 4B D4 50
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpPortDesignatedCost.3 = INTEGER: 0
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpPortDesignatedBridge.3 = Hex-STRING: 80 00 00 01 02 4B D4 50
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpPortDesignatedPort.3 = Hex-STRING: 03 80
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpPortForwardTransitions.3 = Counter32: 1
RSTP-MIB::dot1dStpVersion.0 = INTEGER: rstp(2)
<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>snmpwalk -v 2c -c public bridge1.example.com mib-2.dot1dBridge</userinput>
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dBaseBridgeAddress.0 = STRING: 66:fb:9b:6e:5c:44
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dBaseNumPorts.0 = INTEGER: 1 ports
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpTimeSinceTopologyChange.0 = Timeticks: (189959) 0:31:39.59 centi-seconds
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpTopChanges.0 = Counter32: 2
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpDesignatedRoot.0 = Hex-STRING: 80 00 00 01 02 4B D4 50
...
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpPortState.3 = INTEGER: forwarding(5)
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpPortEnable.3 = INTEGER: enabled(1)
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpPortPathCost.3 = INTEGER: 200000
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpPortDesignatedRoot.3 = Hex-STRING: 80 00 00 01 02 4B D4 50
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpPortDesignatedCost.3 = INTEGER: 0
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpPortDesignatedBridge.3 = Hex-STRING: 80 00 00 01 02 4B D4 50
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpPortDesignatedPort.3 = Hex-STRING: 03 80
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpPortForwardTransitions.3 = Counter32: 1
RSTP-MIB::dot1dStpVersion.0 = INTEGER: rstp(2)
The <literal>dot1dStpTopChanges.0</literal> value is two, indicating that the <acronym>STP</acronym> bridge topology has changed twice. A topology change means that one or more links in the network have changed or failed and a new tree has been calculated. The <literal>dot1dStpTimeSinceTopologyChange.0</literal> value will show when this happened. <literal> dot1dStpTopChanges.0 </literal> değeri ikidir, bu da <acronym> STP </acronym> köprü topolojisinin iki kez değiştiğini gösterir. Bir topoloji değişikliği, ağdaki bir veya daha fazla bağlantının değiştiği veya başarısız olduğu ve yeni bir ağacın hesaplandığı anlamına gelir. Bu olduğunda <literal> dot1dStpTimeSinceTopologyChange.0 </literal> değeri gösterilir.
To monitor multiple bridge interfaces, the private BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB can be used: çoklu köprü arayüzlerini izlemek için özel BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB kullanılabilir:
<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>snmpwalk -v 2c -c public bridge1.example.com</userinput>
enterprises.fokus.begemot.begemotBridge
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeBaseName."bridge0" = STRING: bridge0
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeBaseName."bridge2" = STRING: bridge2
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeBaseAddress."bridge0" = STRING: e:ce:3b:5a:9e:13
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeBaseAddress."bridge2" = STRING: 12:5e:4d:74:d:fc
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeBaseNumPorts."bridge0" = INTEGER: 1
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeBaseNumPorts."bridge2" = INTEGER: 1
...
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeStpTimeSinceTopologyChange."bridge0" = Timeticks: (116927) 0:19:29.27 centi-seconds
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeStpTimeSinceTopologyChange."bridge2" = Timeticks: (82773) 0:13:47.73 centi-seconds
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeStpTopChanges."bridge0" = Counter32: 1
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeStpTopChanges."bridge2" = Counter32: 1
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeStpDesignatedRoot."bridge0" = Hex-STRING: 80 00 00 40 95 30 5E 31
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeStpDesignatedRoot."bridge2" = Hex-STRING: 80 00 00 50 8B B8 C6 A9
<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>snmpwalk -v 2c -c public bridge1.example.com</userinput>
enterprises.fokus.begemot.begemotBridge
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeBaseName."bridge0" = STRING: bridge0
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeBaseName."bridge2" = STRING: bridge2
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeBaseAddress."bridge0" = STRING: e:ce:3b:5a:9e:13
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeBaseAddress."bridge2" = STRING: 12:5e:4d:74:d:fc
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeBaseNumPorts."bridge0" = INTEGER: 1
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeBaseNumPorts."bridge2" = INTEGER: 1
...
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeStpTimeSinceTopologyChange."bridge0" = Timeticks: (116927) 0:19:29.27 centi-seconds
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeStpTimeSinceTopologyChange."bridge2" = Timeticks: (82773) 0:13:47.73 centi-seconds
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeStpTopChanges."bridge0" = Counter32: 1
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeStpTopChanges."bridge2" = Counter32: 1
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeStpDesignatedRoot."bridge0" = Hex-STRING: 80 00 00 40 95 30 5E 31
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeStpDesignatedRoot."bridge2" = Hex-STRING: 80 00 00 50 8B B8 C6 A9
To change the bridge interface being monitored via the <literal>mib-2.dot1dBridge</literal> subtree: <literal> mib-2.dot1dBridge </literal> alt ağacı üzerinden izlenen köprü arabirimini değiştirmek için:
<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>snmpset -v 2c -c private bridge1.example.com</userinput>
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeDefaultBridgeIf.0 s bridge2
<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>snmpset -v 2c -c private bridge1.example.com</userinput>
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeDefaultBridgeIf.0 s bridge2
Link Aggregation and Failover Bağlantı Toplama ve Yük Devretme
<primary>lagg</primary> <primary>lagg</primary>
<primary>failover</primary> <primary>failover</primary>
<primary><acronym>FEC</acronym></primary> <primary><acronym>FEC</acronym></primary>

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Source string comment
(itstool) path: sect2/programlisting
Flags
no-wrap
Source string location
book.translate.xml:65466
String age
6 months ago
Source string age
a year ago
Translation file
books/tr_TR/handbook.po, string 10709