(itstool) path: sect2/para
To determine if the FreeBSD kernel provides support for disk quotas:
Context English Turkish (tr_TR) State
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>find /var -flags snapshot</userinput>
Once a snapshot has been created, it has several uses:
Some administrators will use a snapshot file for backup purposes, because the snapshot can be transferred to <acronym>CD</acronym>s or tape.
The file system integrity checker, <citerefentry><refentrytitle>fsck</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>, may be run on the snapshot. Assuming that the file system was clean when it was mounted, this should always provide a clean and unchanging result.
Running <citerefentry><refentrytitle>dump</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> on the snapshot will produce a dump file that is consistent with the file system and the timestamp of the snapshot. <citerefentry><refentrytitle>dump</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> can also take a snapshot, create a dump image, and then remove the snapshot in one command by using <option>-L</option>.
The snapshot can be mounted as a frozen image of the file system. To <citerefentry><refentrytitle>mount</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> the snapshot <filename>/var/snapshot/snap</filename> run:
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>mdconfig -a -t vnode -o readonly -f /var/snapshot/snap -u 4</userinput>
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>mount -r /dev/md4 /mnt</userinput>
The frozen <filename>/var</filename> is now available through <filename>/mnt</filename>. Everything will initially be in the same state it was during the snapshot creation time. The only exception is that any earlier snapshots will appear as zero length files. To unmount the snapshot, use:
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>umount /mnt</userinput>
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>mdconfig -d -u 4</userinput>
For more information about <option>softupdates</option> and file system snapshots, including technical papers, visit Marshall Kirk McKusick's website at <uri xlink:href=""></uri>.
Disk Quotas
<primary>accounting</primary> <secondary>disk space</secondary>
Disk quotas can be used to limit the amount of disk space or the number of files a user or members of a group may allocate on a per-file system basis. This prevents one user or group of users from consuming all of the available disk space.
This section describes how to configure disk quotas for the <acronym>UFS</acronym> file system. To configure quotas on the <acronym>ZFS</acronym> file system, refer to <xref linkend="zfs-zfs-quota"/>
Enabling Disk Quotas
To determine if the FreeBSD kernel provides support for disk quotas:
<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>sysctl kern.features.ufs_quota</userinput>
kern.features.ufs_quota: 1
In this example, the <literal>1</literal> indicates quota support. If the value is instead <literal>0</literal>, add the following line to a custom kernel configuration file and rebuild the kernel using the instructions in <xref linkend="kernelconfig"/>:
options QUOTA
Next, enable disk quotas in <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>:
<primary>disk quotas</primary> <secondary>checking</secondary>
Normally on bootup, the quota integrity of each file system is checked by <citerefentry><refentrytitle>quotacheck</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>. This program insures that the data in the quota database properly reflects the data on the file system. This is a time consuming process that will significantly affect the time the system takes to boot. To skip this step, add this variable to <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>:
Finally, edit <filename>/etc/fstab</filename> to enable disk quotas on a per-file system basis. To enable per-user quotas on a file system, add <option>userquota</option> to the options field in the <filename>/etc/fstab</filename> entry for the file system to enable quotas on. For example:
/dev/da1s2g /home ufs rw,userquota 1 2
To enable group quotas, use <option>groupquota</option> instead. To enable both user and group quotas, separate the options with a comma:
/dev/da1s2g /home ufs rw,userquota,groupquota 1 2
By default, quota files are stored in the root directory of the file system as <filename>quota.user</filename> and <filename></filename>. Refer to <citerefentry><refentrytitle>fstab</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry> for more information. Specifying an alternate location for the quota files is not recommended.
Once the configuration is complete, reboot the system and <filename>/etc/rc</filename> will automatically run the appropriate commands to create the initial quota files for all of the quotas enabled in <filename>/etc/fstab</filename>.
In the normal course of operations, there should be no need to manually run <citerefentry><refentrytitle>quotacheck</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>, <citerefentry><refentrytitle>quotaon</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>, or <citerefentry><refentrytitle>quotaoff</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>. However, one should read these manual pages to be familiar with their operation.


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English Turkish (tr_TR)
boot disk önyükleme diski FreeBSD Doc
determine belirlemek FreeBSD Doc
disk space disk alanı FreeBSD Doc
FreeBSD branch FreeBSD şubesi FreeBSD Doc
Kernel Çekirdek FreeBSD Doc
kernel çekirdek FreeBSD Doc
quotas disk kotası FreeBSD Doc

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(itstool) path: sect2/para
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8 months ago
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a year ago
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books/tr_TR/handbook.po, string 6027