Translation

(itstool) path: listitem/para (itstool) id: book.translate.xml#zfs-term-vdev-file
<emphasis>File</emphasis> - In addition to disks, <acronym>ZFS</acronym> pools can be backed by regular files, this is especially useful for testing and experimentation. Use the full path to the file as the device path in <command>zpool create</command>. All vdevs must be at least 128 MB in size.
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Context English Chinese (Simplified) (zh_CN) State
The <filename>kmem</filename> address space can be increased on all FreeBSD architectures. On a test system with 1 GB of physical memory, success was achieved with these options added to <filename>/boot/loader.conf</filename>, and the system restarted: 在所有的FreeBSD 架构上均可增加<filename>kmem</filename> 位址空间,经测试在一个1 GB 实体内存的测试系统上,加入以下选项到<filename>/boot/loader.conf</filename>,重新开启系统,可成功设定:
vm.kmem_size="330M"
vm.kmem_size_max="330M"
vfs.zfs.arc_max="40M"
vfs.zfs.vdev.cache.size="5M"
vm.kmem_size="330M"
vm.kmem_size_max="330M"
vfs.zfs.arc_max="40M"
vfs.zfs.vdev.cache.size="5M"
For a more detailed list of recommendations for <acronym>ZFS</acronym>-related tuning, see <link xlink:href="https://wiki.freebsd.org/ZFSTuningGuide"/>. 要获取更多详细的 <acronym>ZFS</acronym> 相关调校的建议清单,请参考 <link xlink:href="http://wiki.freebsd.org/ZFSTuningGuide"/>。
Additional Resources 更多资源
<link xlink:href="http://open-zfs.org">OpenZFS</link> <link xlink:href="http://open-zfs.org">OpenZFS</link>
<link xlink:href="https://wiki.freebsd.org/ZFSTuningGuide">FreeBSD Wiki - <acronym>ZFS</acronym> Tuning</link> <link xlink:href="https://wiki.freebsd.org/ZFSTuningGuide">FreeBSD Wiki - <acronym>ZFS</acronym> Tuning</link>
<link xlink:href="http://docs.oracle.com/cd/E19253-01/819-5461/index.html">Oracle Solaris <acronym>ZFS</acronym> Administration Guide</link> <link xlink:href="http://docs.oracle.com/cd/E19253-01/819-5461/index.html">Oracle Solaris <acronym>ZFS</acronym> Administration Guide</link>
<link xlink:href="https://calomel.org/zfs_raid_speed_capacity.html">Calomel Blog - <acronym>ZFS</acronym> Raidz Performance, Capacity and Integrity</link> <link xlink:href="https://calomel.org/zfs_raid_speed_capacity.html">Calomel Blog - <acronym>ZFS</acronym> Raidz 的性能、容量和完整性</link>
<acronym>ZFS</acronym> Features and Terminology <acronym>ZFS</acronym> 特性与术语
<acronym>ZFS</acronym> is a fundamentally different file system because it is more than just a file system. <acronym>ZFS</acronym> combines the roles of file system and volume manager, enabling additional storage devices to be added to a live system and having the new space available on all of the existing file systems in that pool immediately. By combining the traditionally separate roles, <acronym>ZFS</acronym> is able to overcome previous limitations that prevented <acronym>RAID</acronym> groups being able to grow. Each top level device in a pool is called a <emphasis>vdev</emphasis>, which can be a simple disk or a <acronym>RAID</acronym> transformation such as a mirror or <acronym>RAID-Z</acronym> array. <acronym>ZFS</acronym> file systems (called <emphasis>datasets</emphasis>) each have access to the combined free space of the entire pool. As blocks are allocated from the pool, the space available to each file system decreases. This approach avoids the common pitfall with extensive partitioning where free space becomes fragmented across the partitions. <acronym>ZFS</acronym> 是一个从本质上与众不同的文件系统,由于它并非只是一个文件系统,<acronym>ZFS</acronym> 结合了文件系统及磁盘区管理程序,让额外的储存设备可以即时的加入到系统并可让既有的文件系统立即使用这些在存储池中空间。透过结合传统区分为二的两个角色,<acronym>ZFS</acronym> 能够克服以往 <acronym>RAID</acronym> 磁盘群组无法扩充的限制。每个在存储池顶层的设备称作<emphasis>vdev</emphasis>,其可以是一个简单的磁盘或是一个<acronym>RAID</acronym> 如镜像或<acronym>RAID-Z</acronym > 阵列。 <acronym>ZFS</acronym> 的文件系统(称作<emphasis>数据集(Dataset)</emphasis>)每一个数据集均可存取整个存池所共通的可用空间,随着使用存储池来配置空间区块,存储池能给每个文件系统使用的可用空间就会减少,这个方法可以避免扩大分割区会使的可用空间分散分割区之间的常见问题。
pool 存储池(Pool)
A storage <emphasis>pool</emphasis> is the most basic building block of <acronym>ZFS</acronym>. A pool is made up of one or more vdevs, the underlying devices that store the data. A pool is then used to create one or more file systems (datasets) or block devices (volumes). These datasets and volumes share the pool of remaining free space. Each pool is uniquely identified by a name and a <acronym>GUID</acronym>. The features available are determined by the <acronym>ZFS</acronym> version number on the pool. 存储池(<emphasis>pool</emphasis>)是 <acronym>ZFS</acronym> 最基础的组成部分。存储池由一个或多个 vdev 组成,其下方设备负责存储数据。存储池上可创建一个或多个文件系统(数据集 datasets)或块设备(卷 volumes)。这些数据集和卷共享存储池用的剩余可用空间。存储池可用名字或<acronym>GUID</acronym>标记。存储池的功能由存储池自身的<acronym>ZFS</acronym>版本号决定。
vdev Types vdev 类型(vdev Types)
<emphasis>Disk</emphasis> - The most basic type of vdev is a standard block device. This can be an entire disk (such as <filename><replaceable>/dev/ada0</replaceable></filename> or <filename><replaceable>/dev/da0</replaceable></filename>) or a partition (<filename><replaceable>/dev/ada0p3</replaceable></filename>). On FreeBSD, there is no performance penalty for using a partition rather than the entire disk. This differs from recommendations made by the Solaris documentation. <emphasis>磁盘(Disk)</emphasis> - 最基本的 vdev 型态便是一个标准的资料区块设备,这可以是一整个磁盘(例如<filename><replaceable>/dev/ada0</replaceable></filename> 或<filename><replaceable>/dev/da0</replaceable></filename>)或一个分割区(<filename><replaceable>/dev/ada0p3</replaceable></filename>)。在 FreeBSD 上,使用分割区来替代整个磁盘不会影响效能,这可能与 Solaris 说明文件所建议的有所不同。
Using an entire disk as part of a bootable pool is strongly discouraged, as this may render the pool unbootable. Likewise, you should not use an entire disk as part of a mirror or <acronym>RAID-Z</acronym> vdev. These are because it it impossible to reliably determine the size of an unpartitioned disk at boot time and because there's no place to put in boot code. 强烈建议不要将整个磁盘用作可引导存储池的一部分,因为这可能会使存储池无法启动。同样,不应将整个磁盘用作镜像或<acronym>RAID-Z</acronym> vdev 的一部分。这是因为在引导时无法可靠地确定未分区磁盘的大小,并且无法放入引导代码。
<emphasis>File</emphasis> - In addition to disks, <acronym>ZFS</acronym> pools can be backed by regular files, this is especially useful for testing and experimentation. Use the full path to the file as the device path in <command>zpool create</command>. All vdevs must be at least 128 MB in size. <emphasis>文件(File)</emphasis> - 除了磁盘外,<acronym>ZFS</acronym> 存储池可以使用一般文件为基础,这在测试与实验时特别有用。在 <command>zpool create</command> 时使用文件的完整路径作为设备路径。所有 vdev 必须至少有 128 MB 的大小。
<emphasis>Mirror</emphasis> - When creating a mirror, specify the <literal>mirror</literal> keyword followed by the list of member devices for the mirror. A mirror consists of two or more devices, all data will be written to all member devices. A mirror vdev will only hold as much data as its smallest member. A mirror vdev can withstand the failure of all but one of its members without losing any data. <emphasis>镜像(Mirror)</emphasis> - 要建立镜像,需使用 <literal>mirror</literal> 关键字,后面接着要做为该镜像成员设备的清单。一个镜像需要由两个或多个设备来组成,所有的资料都会被写入到所有的成员设备。镜像 vdev 可以对抗所有成员故障只剩其中一个而不损失任何资料。
A regular single disk vdev can be upgraded to a mirror vdev at any time with <command>zpool <link linkend="zfs-zpool-attach">attach</link></command>. 正常单一磁盘的 vdev 可以使用 <command>zpool <link linkend="zfs-zpool-attach">attach</link></command> 随时升级成为镜像 vdev。
<emphasis><acronym>RAID-Z</acronym></emphasis> - <acronym>ZFS</acronym> implements <acronym>RAID-Z</acronym>, a variation on standard <acronym>RAID-5</acronym> that offers better distribution of parity and eliminates the <quote><acronym>RAID-5</acronym> write hole</quote> in which the data and parity information become inconsistent after an unexpected restart. <acronym>ZFS</acronym> supports three levels of <acronym>RAID-Z</acronym> which provide varying levels of redundancy in exchange for decreasing levels of usable storage. The types are named <acronym>RAID-Z1</acronym> through <acronym>RAID-Z3</acronym> based on the number of parity devices in the array and the number of disks which can fail while the pool remains operational. <emphasis><acronym>RAID-Z</acronym></emphasis> - <acronym>ZFS</acronym> 实作了<acronym>RAID-Z</acronym>,以标准的<acronym>RAID-5</acronym> 修改而来,可提供奇偶校验(Parity)更佳的分散性并去除了<quote><acronym>RAID-5</acronym> write hole</quote> 导致在预期之外的重启后资料与奇偶校验资讯不一致的问题。<acronym>ZFS</acronym> 支持三个层级的<acronym>RAID-Z</acronym>,可提供不同程度的备援来换取减少不同程度的可用空间,类型的名称以阵列中奇偶校验设备的数量与存储池可以容许磁盘故障的数量来命名,从<acronym>RAID-Z1</acronym> 到<acronym>RAID-Z3</acronym>。
In a <acronym>RAID-Z1</acronym> configuration with four disks, each 1 TB, usable storage is 3 TB and the pool will still be able to operate in degraded mode with one faulted disk. If an additional disk goes offline before the faulted disk is replaced and resilvered, all data in the pool can be lost. 在<acronym>RAID-Z1</acronym> 配置4 个磁盘,每个磁盘1 TB,可用的储存空间则为3 TB,且若其中一个磁盘故障仍可以降级(Degraded)的模式运作,若在故障磁盘尚未更换并修复(Resilver)之前又有磁盘故障,所有在存储池中的资料便会遗失。
In a <acronym>RAID-Z3</acronym> configuration with eight disks of 1 TB, the volume will provide 5 TB of usable space and still be able to operate with three faulted disks. <trademark>Sun</trademark> recommends no more than nine disks in a single vdev. If the configuration has more disks, it is recommended to divide them into separate vdevs and the pool data will be striped across them. 在 <acronym>RAID-Z3</acronym> 配置 8 个 1 TB 的磁盘,磁盘区将会可以提供 5 TB 的可用空间且在 3 个磁盘故障的情况下仍可运作. <trademark>Sun</trademark> 建议单一个 vdev 不要使用超过 9 个磁盘.若配置需要使用更多磁盘,建议分成两个 vdev,这样存储池的资料便会分散到这两个 vdev。
A configuration of two <acronym>RAID-Z2</acronym> vdevs consisting of 8 disks each would create something similar to a <acronym>RAID-60</acronym> array. A <acronym>RAID-Z</acronym> group's storage capacity is approximately the size of the smallest disk multiplied by the number of non-parity disks. Four 1 TB disks in <acronym>RAID-Z1</acronym> has an effective size of approximately 3 TB, and an array of eight 1 TB disks in <acronym>RAID-Z3</acronym> will yield 5 TB of usable space. 两个 <acronym>RAID-Z2</acronym> vdev 的配置,每个 vdev 由 8 个硬盘组成,将创建类似于 <acronym>RAID-60</acronym> 的阵列。一个 <acronym>RAID-Z</acronym> 的存储容量大约是最小硬盘的大小乘以非同位硬盘的数量。在<acronym>RAID-Z1</acronym>中,4个1TB的硬盘的有效容量大约为3TB,而在<acronym>RAID-Z3</acronym>中,8个1TB的硬盘组成的阵列可用空间为 5TB。
<emphasis>Spare</emphasis> - <acronym>ZFS</acronym> has a special pseudo-vdev type for keeping track of available hot spares. Note that installed hot spares are not deployed automatically; they must manually be configured to replace the failed device using <command>zfs replace</command>. <emphasis>备援(Spare)</emphasis> - <acronym>ZFS</acronym> 有特殊的虚拟 vdev 型态可用来持续追踪可用的热备援设备(Hot spare)。注意,安装的热备援设备并不会自动布署,热备援设备需要手动使用 <command>zfs replace</command> 设定替换故障的设备。
<emphasis>Log</emphasis> - <acronym>ZFS</acronym> Log Devices, also known as <acronym>ZFS</acronym> Intent Log (<link linkend="zfs-term-zil"><acronym>ZIL</acronym></link>) move the intent log from the regular pool devices to a dedicated device, typically an <acronym>SSD</acronym>. Having a dedicated log device can significantly improve the performance of applications with a high volume of synchronous writes, especially databases. Log devices can be mirrored, but <acronym>RAID-Z</acronym> is not supported. If multiple log devices are used, writes will be load balanced across them. <emphasis>日志(Log)</emphasis> - <acronym>ZFS</acronym> 记录设备,也被称作<acronym>ZFS</acronym> 意图日志(ZFS Intent Log,<link linkend="zfs-term-zil"><acronym>ZIL</acronym></link>)会从正常的存储池设备移动意图日志到独立的设备上,通常是一个 <acronym>SSD</acronym>。有了独立的日志设备,可以明显的增进有大量同步写入应用程序的效能,特别是资料库。日志设备可以做成镜像,但不支持 <acronym>RAID-Z</acronym>,若使用多个日志设备,写入动作会被负载平衡分散到这些设备。
<emphasis>Cache</emphasis> - Adding a cache vdev to a pool will add the storage of the cache to the <link linkend="zfs-term-l2arc"><acronym>L2ARC</acronym></link>. Cache devices cannot be mirrored. Since a cache device only stores additional copies of existing data, there is no risk of data loss. <emphasis>缓存(Cache)</emphasis> - 加入快取vdev 到存储池可以增加储存空间的<link linkend="zfs-term-l2arc"><acronym>L2ARC</acronym></link> 快取。快取设备无法做镜像,因快取设备只会储存额外的现有资料的复本,并没有资料遗失的风险。
A pool is made up of one or more vdevs, which themselves can be a single disk or a group of disks, in the case of a <acronym>RAID</acronym> transform. When multiple vdevs are used, <acronym>ZFS</acronym> spreads data across the vdevs to increase performance and maximize usable space. <_:itemizedlist-1/> 存储池是由一个或多个 vdev 所组成,vdev 可以是一个磁盘或是 <acronym>RAID</acronym> Transform 的磁盘群组。当使用多个 vdev,<acronym>ZFS</acronym> 可以分散资料到各个 vdev 来增加效能与最大的可用空间。 <_:itemizedlist-1/>
Transaction Group (<acronym>TXG</acronym>) 交易群组(Transaction Group, <acronym>TXG</acronym>)
<emphasis>Open</emphasis> - When a new transaction group is created, it is in the open state, and accepts new writes. There is always a transaction group in the open state, however the transaction group may refuse new writes if it has reached a limit. Once the open transaction group has reached a limit, or the <link linkend="zfs-advanced-tuning-txg-timeout"><varname>vfs.zfs.txg.timeout</varname></link> has been reached, the transaction group advances to the next state. <emphasis>开放(Open)</emphasis> - 新的交易群组建立之后便处于开放的状态,可以接受新的写入动作。永远会有开放状态的交易群组,即始交易群组可能会因到达上限而拒绝新的写入动作。一但开放的交易群组到达上限或到达<link linkend="zfs-advanced-tuning-txg-timeout"><varname>vfs.zfs.txg.timeout</varname></link>,交易群组便会继续进入下一个状态。
<emphasis>Quiescing</emphasis> - A short state that allows any pending operations to finish while not blocking the creation of a new open transaction group. Once all of the transactions in the group have completed, the transaction group advances to the final state. <emphasis>静置中(Quiescing)</emphasis> - 一个短暂的状态,会等候任何未完成的操作完成,不会阻挡新开放的交易群组建立。一旦所有在群组中的交易完成,交易群组便会进入到最终状态。
<emphasis>Syncing</emphasis> - All of the data in the transaction group is written to stable storage. This process will in turn modify other data, such as metadata and space maps, that will also need to be written to stable storage. The process of syncing involves multiple passes. The first, all of the changed data blocks, is the biggest, followed by the metadata, which may take multiple passes to complete. Since allocating space for the data blocks generates new metadata, the syncing state cannot finish until a pass completes that does not allocate any additional space. The syncing state is also where <emphasis>synctasks</emphasis> are completed. Synctasks are administrative operations, such as creating or destroying snapshots and datasets, that modify the uberblock are completed. Once the sync state is complete, the transaction group in the quiescing state is advanced to the syncing state. <emphasis>同步中(Syncing)</emphasis> - 所有在交易群组中的资料会被写任到稳定的储存空间,这个程序会依序修改其他也需同样写入到稳定储存空间的资料,如Metadata 与空间对应表。同步的程多会牵涉多个循环,首先是同步所有更改的资料区块,也是最大的部份,接着是 Metadata,这可能会需要多个循环来完成。由于要配置空间供资料区块使用会产生新的 Metadata,同步中状态在到达循环完成而不再需要分配任何额外空间的状态前无法结束。同步中状态也是完成 <emphasis>synctask</emphasis> 的地方,Synctask 是指管理操作,如:建立或摧毁快照与数据集,会修改 uberblock,也会在此时完成。同步状态完成后,其他处于状态中状态的交易群组便会进入同步中状态。
Transaction Groups are the way changed blocks are grouped together and eventually written to the pool. Transaction groups are the atomic unit that <acronym>ZFS</acronym> uses to assert consistency. Each transaction group is assigned a unique 64-bit consecutive identifier. There can be up to three active transaction groups at a time, one in each of these three states: <_:itemizedlist-1/> All administrative functions, such as <link linkend="zfs-term-snapshot"><command>snapshot</command></link> are written as part of the transaction group. When a synctask is created, it is added to the currently open transaction group, and that group is advanced as quickly as possible to the syncing state to reduce the latency of administrative commands. 交易群组是一种将更动的资料区块包装成一组的方式,最后再一次写入到存储池。交易群组是 <acronym>ZFS</acronym> 用来检验一致性的基本单位。每个交易群组会被分配一个独一无二的 64-bit 连续代号。最多一次可以有三个活动中的交易群组,这三个交易群组的每一个都有这三种状态:<_:itemizedlist-1/> 所有管理功能如快照(<link linkend="zfs-term-snapshot"><command>Snapshot</command></link>)会作为交易群组的一部份写入。当 synctask 建立之后,便会加入到目前开放的交易群组中,然后该群组会尽快的进入同步中状态来减少管理指令的延迟。

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<emphasis>File</emphasis> - In addition to disks, <acronym>ZFS</acronym> pools can be backed by regular files, this is especially useful for testing and experimentation. Use the full path to the file as the device path in <command>zpool create</command>. All vdevs must be at least 128 MB in size.
<emphasis>文件(File)</emphasis> - 除了磁盘外,<acronym>ZFS</acronym> 存储池可以使用一般档案文件为基础,这在测试与实验时特别有用。在 <command>zpool create</command> 时使用档案文件的完整路径作为设备路径。所有 vdev 必须至少有 128 MB 的大小。
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Glossary

English Chinese (Simplified) (zh_CN)
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Source information

Source string comment
(itstool) path: listitem/para (itstool) id: book.translate.xml#zfs-term-vdev-file
Source string location
book.translate.xml:41031
String age
7 months ago
Source string age
7 months ago
Translation file
books/zh_CN/handbook.po, string 6696