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Translation

(itstool) path: sect2/screen
English
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>service bsnmpd start</userinput>
Context English Chinese (Simplified) (zh_CN) State
Any communication between the <acronym>VLAN</acronym>s can be blocked using a firewall or, as seen in this example, private interfaces: 可以使用防火墙阻止<acronym>VLAN</acronym>之间的任何通信,或者如本示例所示,可以阻止专用接口:
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>ifconfig bridge0 private vlan100 private vlan101</userinput> <prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>ifconfig bridge0 private vlan100 private vlan101</userinput>
The customers are completely isolated from each other and the full <systemitem class="netmask">/24</systemitem> address range can be allocated without subnetting. 客户之间是完全隔离的,可以在没有子网的情况下分配完整的<systemitem class="netmask">/24</systemitem>地址范围。
The number of unique source <acronym>MAC</acronym> addresses behind an interface can be limited. Once the limit is reached, packets with unknown source addresses are dropped until an existing host cache entry expires or is removed. 可以限制接口后面的唯一源<acronym>MAC</acronym>地址的数量。一旦达到限制,具有未知源地址的数据包将被丢弃,直到现有的主机缓存条目过期或被删除。
The following example sets the maximum number of Ethernet devices for <systemitem class="fqdomainname">CustomerA</systemitem> on <literal>vlan100</literal> to 10: 下面的示例将<systemitem class="fqdomainname">CustomerA</systemitem>在<literal>vlan100</literal>上的最大以太网设备数量设置为10:
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>ifconfig bridge0 ifmaxaddr vlan100 10</userinput> <prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>ifconfig bridge0 ifmaxaddr vlan100 10</userinput>
Bridge interfaces also support monitor mode, where the packets are discarded after <citerefentry><refentrytitle>bpf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> processing and are not processed or forwarded further. This can be used to multiplex the input of two or more interfaces into a single <citerefentry><refentrytitle>bpf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> stream. This is useful for reconstructing the traffic for network taps that transmit the RX/TX signals out through two separate interfaces. For example, to read the input from four network interfaces as one stream: 网桥接口还支持监控模式,即在<citerefentry><refentrytitle>bpf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry>处理后,数据包被丢弃,不再处理或转发。这可用于将两个或多个接口的输入复用到一个<citerefentry><refentrytitle>bpf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry>流中。这对于通过两个独立的接口将RX/TX信号传输出去的网络分路器的流量重构非常有用。例如,将四个网络接口的输入作为一个流读取:
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>ifconfig bridge0 addm fxp0 addm fxp1 addm fxp2 addm fxp3 monitor up</userinput>
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>tcpdump -i bridge0</userinput>
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>ifconfig bridge0 addm fxp0 addm fxp1 addm fxp2 addm fxp3 monitor up</userinput>
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>tcpdump -i bridge0</userinput>
<acronym>SNMP</acronym> Monitoring <acronym>SNMP</acronym>监视
The bridge interface and <acronym>STP</acronym> parameters can be monitored via <citerefentry><refentrytitle>bsnmpd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> which is included in the FreeBSD base system. The exported bridge <acronym>MIB</acronym>s conform to <acronym>IETF</acronym> standards so any <acronym>SNMP</acronym> client or monitoring package can be used to retrieve the data. 网桥接口和 <acronym>STP</acronym> 参数可以通过 FreeBSD 基本系统中包含的 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>bsnmpd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> 来监控。导出的桥接 <acronym>MIB</acronym>符合 <acronym>IETF</acronym> 标准, 因此任何 <acronym>SNMP</acronym> 客户端或监控包都可以用来检索数据。
To enable monitoring on the bridge, uncomment this line in <filename>/etc/snmpd.config</filename> by removing the beginning <literal>#</literal> symbol: 要在网桥上启用监控,请删除<filename>/etc/snmpd.config</filename>中以<literal>#</literal>开头的行来取消对这该行注释:
begemotSnmpdModulePath."bridge" = "/usr/lib/snmp_bridge.so" begemotSnmpdModulePath."bridge" = "/usr/lib/snmp_bridge.so"
Other configuration settings, such as community names and access lists, may need to be modified in this file. See <citerefentry><refentrytitle>bsnmpd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> and <citerefentry><refentrytitle>snmp_bridge</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum></citerefentry> for more information. Once these edits are saved, add this line to <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>: 此文件中的其他设置,如社区名称和访问列表等,可能需要修改。请参阅<citerefentry><refentrytitle>bsnmpd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> 和 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>snmp_bridge</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum></citerefentry>以了解更多信息。完成修改后,在 <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>中添加这一行:
bsnmpd_enable="YES" bsnmpd_enable="YES"
Then, start <citerefentry><refentrytitle>bsnmpd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>: 然后启动 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>bsnmpd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>:
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>service bsnmpd start</userinput> <prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>service bsnmpd start</userinput>
The following examples use the <application>Net-SNMP</application> software (<package>net-mgmt/net-snmp</package>) to query a bridge from a client system. The <package>net-mgmt/bsnmptools</package> port can also be used. From the <acronym>SNMP</acronym> client which is running <application>Net-SNMP</application>, add the following lines to <filename>$HOME/.snmp/snmp.conf</filename> in order to import the bridge <acronym>MIB</acronym> definitions: 以下示例使用<application>Net-SNMP</application>软件(<package>netmgmt/net-snmp</package>)从客户端系统查询网桥。也可以使用<package>net-mgmt/bsnmptools</package>。在<application>Net-SNMP</application>运行的<acronym> SNMP</acronym>客户端中,将以下行添加到<filename>$HOME/.snmp/snmp.conf</filename>以导入网桥<acronym>MIB</acronym>定义:
mibdirs +/usr/share/snmp/mibs
mibs +BRIDGE-MIB:RSTP-MIB:BEGEMOT-MIB:BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB
mibdirs +/usr/share/snmp/mibs
mibs +BRIDGE-MIB:RSTP-MIB:BEGEMOT-MIB:BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB
To monitor a single bridge using the IETF BRIDGE-MIB (RFC4188): 使用 IETF BRIDGE-MIB (RFC4188) 监视网桥:
<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>snmpwalk -v 2c -c public bridge1.example.com mib-2.dot1dBridge</userinput>
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dBaseBridgeAddress.0 = STRING: 66:fb:9b:6e:5c:44
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dBaseNumPorts.0 = INTEGER: 1 ports
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpTimeSinceTopologyChange.0 = Timeticks: (189959) 0:31:39.59 centi-seconds
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpTopChanges.0 = Counter32: 2
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpDesignatedRoot.0 = Hex-STRING: 80 00 00 01 02 4B D4 50
...
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpPortState.3 = INTEGER: forwarding(5)
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpPortEnable.3 = INTEGER: enabled(1)
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpPortPathCost.3 = INTEGER: 200000
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpPortDesignatedRoot.3 = Hex-STRING: 80 00 00 01 02 4B D4 50
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpPortDesignatedCost.3 = INTEGER: 0
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpPortDesignatedBridge.3 = Hex-STRING: 80 00 00 01 02 4B D4 50
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpPortDesignatedPort.3 = Hex-STRING: 03 80
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpPortForwardTransitions.3 = Counter32: 1
RSTP-MIB::dot1dStpVersion.0 = INTEGER: rstp(2)
<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>snmpwalk -v 2c -c public bridge1.example.com mib-2.dot1dBridge</userinput>
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dBaseBridgeAddress.0 = STRING: 66:fb:9b:6e:5c:44
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dBaseNumPorts.0 = INTEGER: 1 ports
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpTimeSinceTopologyChange.0 = Timeticks: (189959) 0:31:39.59 centi-seconds
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpTopChanges.0 = Counter32: 2
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpDesignatedRoot.0 = Hex-STRING: 80 00 00 01 02 4B D4 50
...
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpPortState.3 = INTEGER: forwarding(5)
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpPortEnable.3 = INTEGER: enabled(1)
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpPortPathCost.3 = INTEGER: 200000
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpPortDesignatedRoot.3 = Hex-STRING: 80 00 00 01 02 4B D4 50
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpPortDesignatedCost.3 = INTEGER: 0
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpPortDesignatedBridge.3 = Hex-STRING: 80 00 00 01 02 4B D4 50
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpPortDesignatedPort.3 = Hex-STRING: 03 80
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpPortForwardTransitions.3 = Counter32: 1
RSTP-MIB::dot1dStpVersion.0 = INTEGER: rstp(2)
The <literal>dot1dStpTopChanges.0</literal> value is two, indicating that the <acronym>STP</acronym> bridge topology has changed twice. A topology change means that one or more links in the network have changed or failed and a new tree has been calculated. The <literal>dot1dStpTimeSinceTopologyChange.0</literal> value will show when this happened. <literal>dot1dStpTopChanges.0</literal> 值为2,表示<acronym>STP</acronym>网桥拓扑改变了两次。拓扑结构改变意味着网络中的一个或多个链接发生了变化,并计算出了新的树。<literal>dot1dStpTimeSinceTopologyChange.0</literal>的值代表发生的时间。
To monitor multiple bridge interfaces, the private BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB can be used: 要监视多个网桥接口,可以使用专用 BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB:
<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>snmpwalk -v 2c -c public bridge1.example.com</userinput>
enterprises.fokus.begemot.begemotBridge
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeBaseName."bridge0" = STRING: bridge0
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeBaseName."bridge2" = STRING: bridge2
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeBaseAddress."bridge0" = STRING: e:ce:3b:5a:9e:13
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeBaseAddress."bridge2" = STRING: 12:5e:4d:74:d:fc
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeBaseNumPorts."bridge0" = INTEGER: 1
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeBaseNumPorts."bridge2" = INTEGER: 1
...
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeStpTimeSinceTopologyChange."bridge0" = Timeticks: (116927) 0:19:29.27 centi-seconds
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeStpTimeSinceTopologyChange."bridge2" = Timeticks: (82773) 0:13:47.73 centi-seconds
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeStpTopChanges."bridge0" = Counter32: 1
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeStpTopChanges."bridge2" = Counter32: 1
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeStpDesignatedRoot."bridge0" = Hex-STRING: 80 00 00 40 95 30 5E 31
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeStpDesignatedRoot."bridge2" = Hex-STRING: 80 00 00 50 8B B8 C6 A9
<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>snmpwalk -v 2c -c public bridge1.example.com</userinput>
enterprises.fokus.begemot.begemotBridge
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeBaseName."bridge0" = STRING: bridge0
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeBaseName."bridge2" = STRING: bridge2
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeBaseAddress."bridge0" = STRING: e:ce:3b:5a:9e:13
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeBaseAddress."bridge2" = STRING: 12:5e:4d:74:d:fc
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeBaseNumPorts."bridge0" = INTEGER: 1
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeBaseNumPorts."bridge2" = INTEGER: 1
...
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeStpTimeSinceTopologyChange."bridge0" = Timeticks: (116927) 0:19:29.27 centi-seconds
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeStpTimeSinceTopologyChange."bridge2" = Timeticks: (82773) 0:13:47.73 centi-seconds
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeStpTopChanges."bridge0" = Counter32: 1
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeStpTopChanges."bridge2" = Counter32: 1
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeStpDesignatedRoot."bridge0" = Hex-STRING: 80 00 00 40 95 30 5E 31
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeStpDesignatedRoot."bridge2" = Hex-STRING: 80 00 00 50 8B B8 C6 A9
To change the bridge interface being monitored via the <literal>mib-2.dot1dBridge</literal> subtree: 修改通过<literal>mib-2.dot1dBridge</literal>子树监视的桥接接口:
<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>snmpset -v 2c -c private bridge1.example.com</userinput>
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeDefaultBridgeIf.0 s bridge2
<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>snmpset -v 2c -c private bridge1.example.com</userinput>
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeDefaultBridgeIf.0 s bridge2
Link Aggregation and Failover 链路聚合与故障转移
<primary>lagg</primary> <primary>lagg</primary>
<primary>failover</primary> <primary>failover (故障转移)</primary>
<primary><acronym>FEC</acronym></primary> <primary><acronym>FEC</acronym></primary>
<primary><acronym>LACP</acronym></primary> <primary><acronym>LACP</acronym></primary>
<primary>loadbalance</primary> <primary>负载平衡</primary>

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<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>service bsnmpd start</userinput>
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>service bsnmpd start</userinput>
a year ago
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Source string comment
(itstool) path: sect2/screen
Flags
no-wrap
Source string location
book.translate.xml:65535
String age
a year ago
Source string age
a year ago
Translation file
books/zh_CN/handbook.po, string 11026