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Translation

(itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
English
<primary>failover</primary>
Context English Chinese (Simplified) (zh_CN) State
Other configuration settings, such as community names and access lists, may need to be modified in this file. See <citerefentry><refentrytitle>bsnmpd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> and <citerefentry><refentrytitle>snmp_bridge</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum></citerefentry> for more information. Once these edits are saved, add this line to <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>: 此文件中的其他设置,如社区名称和访问列表等,可能需要修改。请参阅<citerefentry><refentrytitle>bsnmpd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> 和 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>snmp_bridge</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum></citerefentry>以了解更多信息。完成修改后,在 <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>中添加这一行:
bsnmpd_enable="YES" bsnmpd_enable="YES"
Then, start <citerefentry><refentrytitle>bsnmpd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>: 然后启动 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>bsnmpd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>:
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>service bsnmpd start</userinput> <prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>service bsnmpd start</userinput>
The following examples use the <application>Net-SNMP</application> software (<package>net-mgmt/net-snmp</package>) to query a bridge from a client system. The <package>net-mgmt/bsnmptools</package> port can also be used. From the <acronym>SNMP</acronym> client which is running <application>Net-SNMP</application>, add the following lines to <filename>$HOME/.snmp/snmp.conf</filename> in order to import the bridge <acronym>MIB</acronym> definitions: 以下示例使用<application>Net-SNMP</application>软件(<package>netmgmt/net-snmp</package>)从客户端系统查询网桥。也可以使用<package>net-mgmt/bsnmptools</package>。在<application>Net-SNMP</application>运行的<acronym> SNMP</acronym>客户端中,将以下行添加到<filename>$HOME/.snmp/snmp.conf</filename>以导入网桥<acronym>MIB</acronym>定义:
mibdirs +/usr/share/snmp/mibs
mibs +BRIDGE-MIB:RSTP-MIB:BEGEMOT-MIB:BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB
mibdirs +/usr/share/snmp/mibs
mibs +BRIDGE-MIB:RSTP-MIB:BEGEMOT-MIB:BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB
To monitor a single bridge using the IETF BRIDGE-MIB (RFC4188): 使用 IETF BRIDGE-MIB (RFC4188) 监视网桥:
<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>snmpwalk -v 2c -c public bridge1.example.com mib-2.dot1dBridge</userinput>
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dBaseBridgeAddress.0 = STRING: 66:fb:9b:6e:5c:44
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dBaseNumPorts.0 = INTEGER: 1 ports
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpTimeSinceTopologyChange.0 = Timeticks: (189959) 0:31:39.59 centi-seconds
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpTopChanges.0 = Counter32: 2
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpDesignatedRoot.0 = Hex-STRING: 80 00 00 01 02 4B D4 50
...
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpPortState.3 = INTEGER: forwarding(5)
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpPortEnable.3 = INTEGER: enabled(1)
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpPortPathCost.3 = INTEGER: 200000
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpPortDesignatedRoot.3 = Hex-STRING: 80 00 00 01 02 4B D4 50
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpPortDesignatedCost.3 = INTEGER: 0
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpPortDesignatedBridge.3 = Hex-STRING: 80 00 00 01 02 4B D4 50
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpPortDesignatedPort.3 = Hex-STRING: 03 80
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpPortForwardTransitions.3 = Counter32: 1
RSTP-MIB::dot1dStpVersion.0 = INTEGER: rstp(2)
<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>snmpwalk -v 2c -c public bridge1.example.com mib-2.dot1dBridge</userinput>
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dBaseBridgeAddress.0 = STRING: 66:fb:9b:6e:5c:44
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dBaseNumPorts.0 = INTEGER: 1 ports
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpTimeSinceTopologyChange.0 = Timeticks: (189959) 0:31:39.59 centi-seconds
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpTopChanges.0 = Counter32: 2
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpDesignatedRoot.0 = Hex-STRING: 80 00 00 01 02 4B D4 50
...
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpPortState.3 = INTEGER: forwarding(5)
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpPortEnable.3 = INTEGER: enabled(1)
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpPortPathCost.3 = INTEGER: 200000
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpPortDesignatedRoot.3 = Hex-STRING: 80 00 00 01 02 4B D4 50
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpPortDesignatedCost.3 = INTEGER: 0
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpPortDesignatedBridge.3 = Hex-STRING: 80 00 00 01 02 4B D4 50
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpPortDesignatedPort.3 = Hex-STRING: 03 80
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpPortForwardTransitions.3 = Counter32: 1
RSTP-MIB::dot1dStpVersion.0 = INTEGER: rstp(2)
The <literal>dot1dStpTopChanges.0</literal> value is two, indicating that the <acronym>STP</acronym> bridge topology has changed twice. A topology change means that one or more links in the network have changed or failed and a new tree has been calculated. The <literal>dot1dStpTimeSinceTopologyChange.0</literal> value will show when this happened. <literal>dot1dStpTopChanges.0</literal> 值为2,表示<acronym>STP</acronym>网桥拓扑改变了两次。拓扑结构改变意味着网络中的一个或多个链接发生了变化,并计算出了新的树。<literal>dot1dStpTimeSinceTopologyChange.0</literal>的值代表发生的时间。
To monitor multiple bridge interfaces, the private BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB can be used: 要监视多个网桥接口,可以使用专用 BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB:
<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>snmpwalk -v 2c -c public bridge1.example.com</userinput>
enterprises.fokus.begemot.begemotBridge
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeBaseName."bridge0" = STRING: bridge0
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeBaseName."bridge2" = STRING: bridge2
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeBaseAddress."bridge0" = STRING: e:ce:3b:5a:9e:13
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeBaseAddress."bridge2" = STRING: 12:5e:4d:74:d:fc
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeBaseNumPorts."bridge0" = INTEGER: 1
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeBaseNumPorts."bridge2" = INTEGER: 1
...
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeStpTimeSinceTopologyChange."bridge0" = Timeticks: (116927) 0:19:29.27 centi-seconds
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeStpTimeSinceTopologyChange."bridge2" = Timeticks: (82773) 0:13:47.73 centi-seconds
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeStpTopChanges."bridge0" = Counter32: 1
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeStpTopChanges."bridge2" = Counter32: 1
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeStpDesignatedRoot."bridge0" = Hex-STRING: 80 00 00 40 95 30 5E 31
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeStpDesignatedRoot."bridge2" = Hex-STRING: 80 00 00 50 8B B8 C6 A9
<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>snmpwalk -v 2c -c public bridge1.example.com</userinput>
enterprises.fokus.begemot.begemotBridge
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeBaseName."bridge0" = STRING: bridge0
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeBaseName."bridge2" = STRING: bridge2
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeBaseAddress."bridge0" = STRING: e:ce:3b:5a:9e:13
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeBaseAddress."bridge2" = STRING: 12:5e:4d:74:d:fc
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeBaseNumPorts."bridge0" = INTEGER: 1
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeBaseNumPorts."bridge2" = INTEGER: 1
...
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeStpTimeSinceTopologyChange."bridge0" = Timeticks: (116927) 0:19:29.27 centi-seconds
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeStpTimeSinceTopologyChange."bridge2" = Timeticks: (82773) 0:13:47.73 centi-seconds
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeStpTopChanges."bridge0" = Counter32: 1
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeStpTopChanges."bridge2" = Counter32: 1
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeStpDesignatedRoot."bridge0" = Hex-STRING: 80 00 00 40 95 30 5E 31
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeStpDesignatedRoot."bridge2" = Hex-STRING: 80 00 00 50 8B B8 C6 A9
To change the bridge interface being monitored via the <literal>mib-2.dot1dBridge</literal> subtree: 修改通过<literal>mib-2.dot1dBridge</literal>子树监视的桥接接口:
<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>snmpset -v 2c -c private bridge1.example.com</userinput>
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeDefaultBridgeIf.0 s bridge2
<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>snmpset -v 2c -c private bridge1.example.com</userinput>
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeDefaultBridgeIf.0 s bridge2
Link Aggregation and Failover 链路聚合与故障转移
<primary>lagg</primary> <primary>lagg</primary>
<primary>failover</primary> <primary>failover (故障转移)</primary>
<primary><acronym>FEC</acronym></primary> <primary><acronym>FEC</acronym></primary>
<primary><acronym>LACP</acronym></primary> <primary><acronym>LACP</acronym></primary>
<primary>loadbalance</primary> <primary>负载平衡</primary>
<primary>roundrobin</primary> <primary>循环</primary>
FreeBSD provides the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>lagg</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> interface which can be used to aggregate multiple network interfaces into one virtual interface in order to provide failover and link aggregation. Failover allows traffic to continue to flow as long as at least one aggregated network interface has an established link. Link aggregation works best on switches which support <acronym>LACP</acronym>, as this protocol distributes traffic bi-directionally while responding to the failure of individual links. FreeBSD 提供了<citerefentry><refentrytitle>lagg</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry>接口,它可将多个网口合成一个虚拟网口,以提供故障转移和链路聚合功能。故障转移允许流量继续流动,只要至少有一个聚合的网络接口具有已建立的链接。链路聚合在支持<acronym>LACP</acronym>的交换机上效果最佳,因为此协议在响应单个链路故障时双向分布流量。
The aggregation protocols supported by the lagg interface determine which ports are used for outgoing traffic and whether or not a specific port accepts incoming traffic. The following protocols are supported by <citerefentry><refentrytitle>lagg</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry>: lagg 接口支持的聚合协议决定了哪些端口用于传出流量以及特定端口是否接受传入流量。<citerefentry><refentrytitle>lagg</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry>支持以下协议:
failover failover (故障转移)
This mode sends and receives traffic only through the master port. If the master port becomes unavailable, the next active port is used. The first interface added to the virtual interface is the master port and all subsequently added interfaces are used as failover devices. If failover to a non-master port occurs, the original port becomes master once it becomes available again. 只通过主网口收发数据。 如果主网口不可用, 则使用下一个激活的网口。 您在这里加入的第一个网口便会被视为主网口; 此后加入的其他网口, 则会被视为故障转移的备用网口。 如果发生故障转移之后, 原先的网口又恢复了可用状态, 则它仍会作为主网口使用。
fec / loadbalance fec / loadbalance(负载均衡)
<trademark class="registered">Cisco</trademark> Fast <trademark class="registered">EtherChannel</trademark> (<acronym>FEC</acronym>) is found on older <trademark class="registered">Cisco</trademark> switches. It provides a static setup and does not negotiate aggregation with the peer or exchange frames to monitor the link. If the switch supports <acronym>LACP</acronym>, that should be used instead. <trademark class="registered">Cisco</trademark> Fast <trademark class="registered">EtherChannel</trademark> (FEC) 是一种静态配置, 并不进行节点间协商或交换以太网帧来监控链路情况。 如果交换机支持 LACP, 则应使用后者而非这种配置。
<acronym>lacp</acronym> <acronym>lacp</acronym>
The <trademark class="registered">IEEE</trademark> 802.3ad Link Aggregation Control Protocol (<acronym>LACP</acronym>) negotiates a set of aggregable links with the peer into one or more Link Aggregated Groups (<acronym>LAG</acronym>s). Each <acronym>LAG</acronym> is composed of ports of the same speed, set to full-duplex operation, and traffic is balanced across the ports in the <acronym>LAG</acronym> with the greatest total speed. Typically, there is only one <acronym>LAG</acronym> which contains all the ports. In the event of changes in physical connectivity, <acronym>LACP</acronym> will quickly converge to a new configuration. 支持 <trademark class="registered">IEEE</trademark> 802.3ad 链路聚合控制协议 (LACP) 和标记协议。 LACP 能够在节点与若干链路聚合组之间协商链路。 每一个链路聚合组 (LAG) 由一组相同速度、 以全双工模式运行的网口组成。 流量在 LAG 中的网口之间, 会以总速度最大的原则进行分摊。 当物理链路发生变化时, 链路聚合会迅速适应变动形成新的配置。
<acronym>LACP</acronym> balances outgoing traffic across the active ports based on hashed protocol header information and accepts incoming traffic from any active port. The hash includes the Ethernet source and destination address and, if available, the <acronym>VLAN</acronym> tag, and the <acronym>IPv4</acronym> or <acronym>IPv6</acronym> source and destination address. <acronym>LACP</acronym> 也是将输出流量在激活的网口之间以协议头散列信息为依据分拆, 并接收来自任意激活网口的入流量。 散列信息包含以太网源地址、 目的地址, 以及 (如果有的话) VLAN tag 和 IPv4/IPv6 源地址及目的地址信息。
roundrobin roundrobin (轮转)
This mode distributes outgoing traffic using a round-robin scheduler through all active ports and accepts incoming traffic from any active port. Since this mode violates Ethernet frame ordering, it should be used with caution. 将输出流量以轮转方式在所有激活端口之间调度, 并从任意激活端口接收进入流量。 这种模式违反了以太网帧排序规则, 因此应小心使用。

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<primary>failover</primary>
<primary>failover (故障转移)</primary>
a year ago
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Glossary

English Chinese (Simplified) (zh_CN)
No related strings found in the glossary.

Source information

Source string comment
(itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
Source string location
book.translate.xml:65535
String age
a year ago
Source string age
a year ago
Translation file
books/zh_CN/handbook.po, string 11038