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Translation

(itstool) path: sect2/para
English
The <literal>dot1dStpTopChanges.0</literal> value is two, indicating that the <acronym>STP</acronym> bridge topology has changed twice. A topology change means that one or more links in the network have changed or failed and a new tree has been calculated. The <literal>dot1dStpTimeSinceTopologyChange.0</literal> value will show when this happened.
Context English Chinese (Simplified) (zh_CN) State
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>ifconfig bridge0 ifmaxaddr vlan100 10</userinput> <prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>ifconfig bridge0 ifmaxaddr vlan100 10</userinput>
Bridge interfaces also support monitor mode, where the packets are discarded after <citerefentry><refentrytitle>bpf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> processing and are not processed or forwarded further. This can be used to multiplex the input of two or more interfaces into a single <citerefentry><refentrytitle>bpf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> stream. This is useful for reconstructing the traffic for network taps that transmit the RX/TX signals out through two separate interfaces. For example, to read the input from four network interfaces as one stream: 网桥接口还支持监控模式,即在<citerefentry><refentrytitle>bpf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry>处理后,数据包被丢弃,不再处理或转发。这可用于将两个或多个接口的输入复用到一个<citerefentry><refentrytitle>bpf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry>流中。这对于通过两个独立的接口将RX/TX信号传输出去的网络分路器的流量重构非常有用。例如,将四个网络接口的输入作为一个流读取:
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>ifconfig bridge0 addm fxp0 addm fxp1 addm fxp2 addm fxp3 monitor up</userinput>
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>tcpdump -i bridge0</userinput>
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>ifconfig bridge0 addm fxp0 addm fxp1 addm fxp2 addm fxp3 monitor up</userinput>
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>tcpdump -i bridge0</userinput>
<acronym>SNMP</acronym> Monitoring <acronym>SNMP</acronym>监视
The bridge interface and <acronym>STP</acronym> parameters can be monitored via <citerefentry><refentrytitle>bsnmpd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> which is included in the FreeBSD base system. The exported bridge <acronym>MIB</acronym>s conform to <acronym>IETF</acronym> standards so any <acronym>SNMP</acronym> client or monitoring package can be used to retrieve the data. 网桥接口和 <acronym>STP</acronym> 参数可以通过 FreeBSD 基本系统中包含的 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>bsnmpd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> 来监控。导出的桥接 <acronym>MIB</acronym>符合 <acronym>IETF</acronym> 标准, 因此任何 <acronym>SNMP</acronym> 客户端或监控包都可以用来检索数据。
To enable monitoring on the bridge, uncomment this line in <filename>/etc/snmpd.config</filename> by removing the beginning <literal>#</literal> symbol: 要在网桥上启用监控,请删除<filename>/etc/snmpd.config</filename>中以<literal>#</literal>开头的行来取消对这该行注释:
begemotSnmpdModulePath."bridge" = "/usr/lib/snmp_bridge.so" begemotSnmpdModulePath."bridge" = "/usr/lib/snmp_bridge.so"
Other configuration settings, such as community names and access lists, may need to be modified in this file. See <citerefentry><refentrytitle>bsnmpd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> and <citerefentry><refentrytitle>snmp_bridge</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum></citerefentry> for more information. Once these edits are saved, add this line to <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>: 此文件中的其他设置,如社区名称和访问列表等,可能需要修改。请参阅<citerefentry><refentrytitle>bsnmpd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> 和 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>snmp_bridge</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum></citerefentry>以了解更多信息。完成修改后,在 <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>中添加这一行:
bsnmpd_enable="YES" bsnmpd_enable="YES"
Then, start <citerefentry><refentrytitle>bsnmpd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>: 然后启动 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>bsnmpd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>:
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>service bsnmpd start</userinput> <prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>service bsnmpd start</userinput>
The following examples use the <application>Net-SNMP</application> software (<package>net-mgmt/net-snmp</package>) to query a bridge from a client system. The <package>net-mgmt/bsnmptools</package> port can also be used. From the <acronym>SNMP</acronym> client which is running <application>Net-SNMP</application>, add the following lines to <filename>$HOME/.snmp/snmp.conf</filename> in order to import the bridge <acronym>MIB</acronym> definitions: 以下示例使用<application>Net-SNMP</application>软件(<package>netmgmt/net-snmp</package>)从客户端系统查询网桥。也可以使用<package>net-mgmt/bsnmptools</package>。在<application>Net-SNMP</application>运行的<acronym> SNMP</acronym>客户端中,将以下行添加到<filename>$HOME/.snmp/snmp.conf</filename>以导入网桥<acronym>MIB</acronym>定义:
mibdirs +/usr/share/snmp/mibs
mibs +BRIDGE-MIB:RSTP-MIB:BEGEMOT-MIB:BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB
mibdirs +/usr/share/snmp/mibs
mibs +BRIDGE-MIB:RSTP-MIB:BEGEMOT-MIB:BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB
To monitor a single bridge using the IETF BRIDGE-MIB (RFC4188): 使用 IETF BRIDGE-MIB (RFC4188) 监视网桥:
<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>snmpwalk -v 2c -c public bridge1.example.com mib-2.dot1dBridge</userinput>
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dBaseBridgeAddress.0 = STRING: 66:fb:9b:6e:5c:44
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dBaseNumPorts.0 = INTEGER: 1 ports
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpTimeSinceTopologyChange.0 = Timeticks: (189959) 0:31:39.59 centi-seconds
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpTopChanges.0 = Counter32: 2
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpDesignatedRoot.0 = Hex-STRING: 80 00 00 01 02 4B D4 50
...
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpPortState.3 = INTEGER: forwarding(5)
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpPortEnable.3 = INTEGER: enabled(1)
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpPortPathCost.3 = INTEGER: 200000
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpPortDesignatedRoot.3 = Hex-STRING: 80 00 00 01 02 4B D4 50
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpPortDesignatedCost.3 = INTEGER: 0
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpPortDesignatedBridge.3 = Hex-STRING: 80 00 00 01 02 4B D4 50
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpPortDesignatedPort.3 = Hex-STRING: 03 80
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpPortForwardTransitions.3 = Counter32: 1
RSTP-MIB::dot1dStpVersion.0 = INTEGER: rstp(2)
<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>snmpwalk -v 2c -c public bridge1.example.com mib-2.dot1dBridge</userinput>
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dBaseBridgeAddress.0 = STRING: 66:fb:9b:6e:5c:44
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dBaseNumPorts.0 = INTEGER: 1 ports
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpTimeSinceTopologyChange.0 = Timeticks: (189959) 0:31:39.59 centi-seconds
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpTopChanges.0 = Counter32: 2
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpDesignatedRoot.0 = Hex-STRING: 80 00 00 01 02 4B D4 50
...
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpPortState.3 = INTEGER: forwarding(5)
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpPortEnable.3 = INTEGER: enabled(1)
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpPortPathCost.3 = INTEGER: 200000
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpPortDesignatedRoot.3 = Hex-STRING: 80 00 00 01 02 4B D4 50
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpPortDesignatedCost.3 = INTEGER: 0
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpPortDesignatedBridge.3 = Hex-STRING: 80 00 00 01 02 4B D4 50
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpPortDesignatedPort.3 = Hex-STRING: 03 80
BRIDGE-MIB::dot1dStpPortForwardTransitions.3 = Counter32: 1
RSTP-MIB::dot1dStpVersion.0 = INTEGER: rstp(2)
The <literal>dot1dStpTopChanges.0</literal> value is two, indicating that the <acronym>STP</acronym> bridge topology has changed twice. A topology change means that one or more links in the network have changed or failed and a new tree has been calculated. The <literal>dot1dStpTimeSinceTopologyChange.0</literal> value will show when this happened. <literal>dot1dStpTopChanges.0</literal> 值为2,表示<acronym>STP</acronym>网桥拓扑改变了两次。拓扑结构改变意味着网络中的一个或多个链接发生了变化,并计算出了新的树。<literal>dot1dStpTimeSinceTopologyChange.0</literal>的值代表发生的时间。
To monitor multiple bridge interfaces, the private BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB can be used: 要监视多个网桥接口,可以使用专用 BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB:
<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>snmpwalk -v 2c -c public bridge1.example.com</userinput>
enterprises.fokus.begemot.begemotBridge
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeBaseName."bridge0" = STRING: bridge0
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeBaseName."bridge2" = STRING: bridge2
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeBaseAddress."bridge0" = STRING: e:ce:3b:5a:9e:13
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeBaseAddress."bridge2" = STRING: 12:5e:4d:74:d:fc
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeBaseNumPorts."bridge0" = INTEGER: 1
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeBaseNumPorts."bridge2" = INTEGER: 1
...
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeStpTimeSinceTopologyChange."bridge0" = Timeticks: (116927) 0:19:29.27 centi-seconds
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeStpTimeSinceTopologyChange."bridge2" = Timeticks: (82773) 0:13:47.73 centi-seconds
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeStpTopChanges."bridge0" = Counter32: 1
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeStpTopChanges."bridge2" = Counter32: 1
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeStpDesignatedRoot."bridge0" = Hex-STRING: 80 00 00 40 95 30 5E 31
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeStpDesignatedRoot."bridge2" = Hex-STRING: 80 00 00 50 8B B8 C6 A9
<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>snmpwalk -v 2c -c public bridge1.example.com</userinput>
enterprises.fokus.begemot.begemotBridge
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeBaseName."bridge0" = STRING: bridge0
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeBaseName."bridge2" = STRING: bridge2
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeBaseAddress."bridge0" = STRING: e:ce:3b:5a:9e:13
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeBaseAddress."bridge2" = STRING: 12:5e:4d:74:d:fc
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeBaseNumPorts."bridge0" = INTEGER: 1
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeBaseNumPorts."bridge2" = INTEGER: 1
...
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeStpTimeSinceTopologyChange."bridge0" = Timeticks: (116927) 0:19:29.27 centi-seconds
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeStpTimeSinceTopologyChange."bridge2" = Timeticks: (82773) 0:13:47.73 centi-seconds
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeStpTopChanges."bridge0" = Counter32: 1
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeStpTopChanges."bridge2" = Counter32: 1
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeStpDesignatedRoot."bridge0" = Hex-STRING: 80 00 00 40 95 30 5E 31
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeStpDesignatedRoot."bridge2" = Hex-STRING: 80 00 00 50 8B B8 C6 A9
To change the bridge interface being monitored via the <literal>mib-2.dot1dBridge</literal> subtree: 修改通过<literal>mib-2.dot1dBridge</literal>子树监视的桥接接口:
<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>snmpset -v 2c -c private bridge1.example.com</userinput>
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeDefaultBridgeIf.0 s bridge2
<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>snmpset -v 2c -c private bridge1.example.com</userinput>
BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeDefaultBridgeIf.0 s bridge2
Link Aggregation and Failover 链路聚合与故障转移
<primary>lagg</primary> <primary>lagg</primary>
<primary>failover</primary> <primary>failover (故障转移)</primary>
<primary><acronym>FEC</acronym></primary> <primary><acronym>FEC</acronym></primary>
<primary><acronym>LACP</acronym></primary> <primary><acronym>LACP</acronym></primary>
<primary>loadbalance</primary> <primary>负载平衡</primary>
<primary>roundrobin</primary> <primary>循环</primary>
FreeBSD provides the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>lagg</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> interface which can be used to aggregate multiple network interfaces into one virtual interface in order to provide failover and link aggregation. Failover allows traffic to continue to flow as long as at least one aggregated network interface has an established link. Link aggregation works best on switches which support <acronym>LACP</acronym>, as this protocol distributes traffic bi-directionally while responding to the failure of individual links. FreeBSD 提供了<citerefentry><refentrytitle>lagg</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry>接口,它可将多个网口合成一个虚拟网口,以提供故障转移和链路聚合功能。故障转移允许流量继续流动,只要至少有一个聚合的网络接口具有已建立的链接。链路聚合在支持<acronym>LACP</acronym>的交换机上效果最佳,因为此协议在响应单个链路故障时双向分布流量。
The aggregation protocols supported by the lagg interface determine which ports are used for outgoing traffic and whether or not a specific port accepts incoming traffic. The following protocols are supported by <citerefentry><refentrytitle>lagg</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry>: lagg 接口支持的聚合协议决定了哪些端口用于传出流量以及特定端口是否接受传入流量。<citerefentry><refentrytitle>lagg</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry>支持以下协议:
failover failover (故障转移)
This mode sends and receives traffic only through the master port. If the master port becomes unavailable, the next active port is used. The first interface added to the virtual interface is the master port and all subsequently added interfaces are used as failover devices. If failover to a non-master port occurs, the original port becomes master once it becomes available again. 只通过主网口收发数据。 如果主网口不可用, 则使用下一个激活的网口。 您在这里加入的第一个网口便会被视为主网口; 此后加入的其他网口, 则会被视为故障转移的备用网口。 如果发生故障转移之后, 原先的网口又恢复了可用状态, 则它仍会作为主网口使用。

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The <literal>dot1dStpTopChanges.0</literal> value is two, indicating that the <acronym>STP</acronym> bridge topology has changed twice. A topology change means that one or more links in the network have changed or failed and a new tree has been calculated. The <literal>dot1dStpTimeSinceTopologyChange.0</literal> value will show when this happened.
<literal>dot1dStpTopChanges.0</literal> 值为2,表示<acronym>STP</acronym>网桥拓扑改变了两次。拓扑结构改变意味着网络中的一个或多个链接发生了变化,并计算出了新的树。<literal>dot1dStpTimeSinceTopologyChange.0</literal>的值代表发生的时间。
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Glossary

English Chinese (Simplified) (zh_CN)
No related strings found in the glossary.

Source information

Source string comment
(itstool) path: sect2/para
Source string location
book.translate.xml:65535
String age
a year ago
Source string age
a year ago
Translation file
books/zh_CN/handbook.po, string 11031