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All New World <acronym>ROM</acronym> <trademark class="registered">Apple</trademark> <trademark class="registered">Mac</trademark> systems with built-in <acronym>USB</acronym> are supported. <acronym>SMP</acronym> is supported on machines with multiple <acronym>CPU</acronym>s.
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How to access a live version of FreeBSD before committing to an installation. 如何在安装前获取 FreeBSD 的最新版本。
Before reading this chapter, you should: 在阅读这个章节之前,您应当:
Read the supported hardware list that shipped with the version of FreeBSD to be installed and verify that the system's hardware is supported. 阅读要安装的 FreeBSD 附带的支持硬件列表,并确认系统中的硬件都被支持。
Minimum Hardware Requirements 最低硬件要求
The hardware requirements to install FreeBSD vary by architecture. Hardware architectures and devices supported by a FreeBSD release are listed on the <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/releases/index.html">FreeBSD Release Information</link> page. The <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/where.html">FreeBSD download page</link> also has recommendations for choosing the correct image for different architectures. 安装 FreeBSD 的硬件要求因架构而异。FreeBSD 版本支持的硬件架构和设备列在<link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/releases/index.html">FreeBSD Release Information</link>页上。 <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/where.html">FreeBSD download page</link>也有为不同体系结构选择正确图像的建议。
A FreeBSD installation requires a minimum of 96 MB of <acronym>RAM</acronym> and 1.5 GB of free hard drive space. However, such small amounts of memory and disk space are really only suitable for custom applications like embedded appliances. General-purpose desktop systems need more resources. 2-4 GB RAM and at least 8 GB hard drive space is a good starting point. 安装 FreeBSD 至少需要 96 MB 的<acronym> RAM</acronym>和 1.5 GB 的可用硬盘空间。但是,如此少量的内存和磁盘空间实际上只适用于自定义应用程序(如嵌入式设备)。通用桌面系统需要更多的资源。建议RAM 为 2-4G或更多,硬盘容量大于 8G。
These are the processor requirements for each architecture: 这里是对每个架构的处理器要求:
amd64 amd64
This is the most common desktop and laptop processor type, used in most modern systems. <trademark class="registered">Intel</trademark> calls it <acronym>Intel64</acronym>. Other manufacturers sometimes call it <acronym>x86-64</acronym>. 这是最常见的桌面及笔记本处理器类型,被多数现代系统所使用。<trademark class="registered">Intel</trademark> 称它为 <acronym>Intel64</acronym>。其他生产商有时将它称作 <acronym>x86-64</acronym>。
Examples of amd64 compatible processors include: <trademark>AMD Athlon</trademark>64, <trademark>AMD Opteron</trademark>, multi-core <trademark class="registered">Intel</trademark> <trademark>Xeon</trademark>, and <trademark class="registered">Intel</trademark> <trademark>Core</trademark> 2 and later processors. 兼容 amd64 的处理器的例子有:<trademark>AMD Athlon</trademark>64, <trademark>AMD Opteron</trademark>,多核 <trademark class="registered">Intel</trademark> <trademark>Xeon</trademark>,以及 <trademark class="registered">Intel</trademark> <trademark>Core</trademark> 2 和之后的处理器。
i386 i386
Older desktops and laptops often use this 32-bit, x86 architecture. 更老的桌面及笔记本经常使用这个32位的 x86 架构。
Almost all i386-compatible processors with a floating point unit are supported. All <trademark class="registered">Intel</trademark> processors 486 or higher are supported. 几乎所有的兼容 i386 并且有浮点运算单元的处理器都被支持。所有<trademark class="registered">Intel</trademark> 486 及之后的处理器都被支持。
FreeBSD will take advantage of Physical Address Extensions (<acronym>PAE</acronym>) support on <acronym>CPU</acronym>s with this feature. A kernel with the <acronym>PAE</acronym> feature enabled will detect memory above 4 GB and allow it to be used by the system. However, using <acronym>PAE</acronym> places constraints on device drivers and other features of FreeBSD. FreeBSD 将在 <acronym>CPU</acronym> 上利用物理地址扩展 (<acronym>PAE</acronym>) 支持这个功能。启用 <acronym>PAE</acronym> 功能的内核将检测到 4 GB 以上的内存, 并允许系统使用它。然而, 使用 <acronym>PAE</acronym> 会对 FreeBSD 的设备驱动程序和部分功能造成限制。
powerpc powerpc
All New World <acronym>ROM</acronym> <trademark class="registered">Apple</trademark> <trademark class="registered">Mac</trademark> systems with built-in <acronym>USB</acronym> are supported. <acronym>SMP</acronym> is supported on machines with multiple <acronym>CPU</acronym>s. 支持所有内建 USB 的 New World <trademark class="registered">Apple</trademark> <trademark class="registered">Mac</trademark> 系统, 同时也为配置多 CPU 的机器提供<acronym>CPU</acronym>支持。
A 32-bit kernel can only use the first 2 GB of <acronym>RAM</acronym>. 注意 32 位的内核只能使用内存的前 2 GB。
sparc64 sparc64
Systems supported by FreeBSD/sparc64 are listed at the <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/platforms/sparc.html">FreeBSD/sparc64 Project</link>. 有关 FreeBSD/sparc64 的系统支持, 详见 <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/platforms/sparc.html">FreeBSD/sparc64</link> 项目。
<acronym>SMP</acronym> is supported on all systems with more than 1 processor. A dedicated disk is required as it is not possible to share a disk with another operating system at this time. 具有 1 个以上处理器的所有系统都支持<acronym>SMP</acronym>。需要独占一块磁盘。 目前还不支持与其他操作系统共享同一块磁盘。
Pre-Installation Tasks 安装前的准备
Once it has been determined that the system meets the minimum hardware requirements for installing FreeBSD, the installation file should be downloaded and the installation media prepared. Before doing this, check that the system is ready for an installation by verifying the items in this checklist: 确认硬件满足 FreeBSD 最低硬件需求后,下载安装镜像并将用它制作好安装介质。在安装前,请阅读以下部分来确认是否可以安装系统:
Back Up Important Data 备份重要数据
Before installing any operating system, <emphasis>always</emphasis> backup all important data first. Do not store the backup on the system being installed. Instead, save the data to a removable disk such as a <acronym>USB</acronym> drive, another system on the network, or an online backup service. Test the backup before starting the installation to make sure it contains all of the needed files. Once the installer formats the system's disk, all data stored on that disk will be lost. 在安装任何操作系统之前都应备份好重要数据。不要将备份数据放在将要装系统的硬盘上,应将其保存在 U 盘或其他存储设备中。在安装前再次检查重要数据是否备份完成。一旦安装程序格式化系统盘,存储在该磁盘上的所有数据都将被抹去。
Decide Where to Install FreeBSD 决定在哪里安装 FreeBSD
If FreeBSD will be the only operating system installed, this step can be skipped. But if FreeBSD will share the disk with another operating system, decide which disk or partition will be used for FreeBSD. 如果仅安装 FreeBSD,那这个步骤可以被跳过。但是,如果 FreeBSD 会和另一个操作系统共享磁盘,那么您需要决定哪个磁盘或者分区将会被用于安装 FreeBSD。
In the i386 and amd64 architectures, disks can be divided into multiple partitions using one of two partitioning schemes. A traditional <firstterm>Master Boot Record</firstterm> (<acronym>MBR</acronym>) holds a partition table defining up to four <firstterm>primary partitions</firstterm>. For historical reasons, FreeBSD calls these primary partition <firstterm>slices</firstterm>. One of these primary partitions can be made into an <firstterm>extended partition</firstterm> containing multiple <firstterm>logical partitions</firstterm>. The <firstterm>GUID Partition Table</firstterm> (<acronym>GPT</acronym>) is a newer and simpler method of partitioning a disk. Common <acronym>GPT</acronym> implementations allow up to 128 partitions per disk, eliminating the need for logical partitions. 在 i386 和 amd64 架构中。磁盘可使用两种分区表分割成多个分区(partitioning )。传统的<acronym>MBR</acronym>(<firstterm>Master Boot Record</firstterm>)分区表可设置四个主分区(由于历史原因,FreeBSD 中将主分区称作 <firstterm>slices(分片)</firstterm>)。主分区可由一个包含多个逻辑分区的扩展分区组成。GUID 分区表(GPT)是一种新的、更简单的磁盘分区方法。GPT 允许每个磁盘最多有 128 个分区,这样就不需要逻辑分区了。
The FreeBSD boot loader requires either a primary or <acronym>GPT</acronym> partition. If all of the primary or <acronym>GPT</acronym> partitions are already in use, one must be freed for FreeBSD. To create a partition without deleting existing data, use a partition resizing tool to shrink an existing partition and create a new partition using the freed space. FreeBSD 引导加载程序需要主分区或 <acronym> GPT </acronym> 分区。如果所有主分区或 <acronym> GPT </acronym> 分区都已在使用中, 则必须为 FreeBSD 创建一个分区。若要在不删除现有数据的情况下创建分区, 请使用分区调整大小工具收缩现有分区, 并使用释放的空间创建新分区。
A variety of free and commercial partition resizing tools are listed at <link xlink:href=""></link>. <application>GParted Live</application> (<link xlink:href=""></link>) is a free live <acronym>CD</acronym> which includes the <application>GParted</application> partition editor. <application>GParted</application> is also included with many other Linux live <acronym>CD</acronym> distributions. 分区工具列表可在<link xlink:href="">维基百科</link>中查看。<application>GParted Live</application> (<link xlink:href=""></link>)是一个开源的 live <acronym>CD</acronym>,它包含了 GParted 分区编辑器。许多 Linux 发行版中也预装了 GParted。
When used properly, disk shrinking utilities can safely create space for creating a new partition. Since the possibility of selecting the wrong partition exists, always backup any important data and verify the integrity of the backup before modifying disk partitions. 如果使用恰当的话,磁盘缩减工具可被用于安全地为一个新分区创造空间。因为有选错分区的可能性,请务必在修改磁盘分区前备份任何重要数据,并且验证备份的完整性。
Disk partitions containing different operating systems make it possible to install multiple operating systems on one computer. An alternative is to use virtualization (<xref linkend="virtualization"/>) which allows multiple operating systems to run at the same time without modifying any disk partitions. 包含不同操作系统的磁盘分区使在一台计算机上安装多个操作系统成为可能。另一种方法是使用虚拟化 (<xref linkend="virtualization"/>), 它允许多个操作系统同时运行, 而无需修改任何磁盘分区。


All New World <acronym>ROM</acronym> <trademark class="registered">Apple</trademark> <trademark class="registered">Mac</trademark> systems with built-in <acronym>USB</acronym> are supported. <acronym>SMP</acronym> is supported on machines with multiple <acronym>CPU</acronym>s.
支持所有内建 USB 的 New World <trademark class="registered">Apple</trademark> <trademark class="registered">Mac</trademark> 系统, 同时也为配置多 CPU 的机器提供<acronym>CPU</acronym>支持。
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