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To build a set with a non default <application>Perl</application> version, for example, <literal>5.20</literal>, using a set named <literal>perl5-20</literal>, create a <filename>perl5-20-make.conf</filename> with this line:
DEFAULT_VERSIONS+= perl=5.20
Note the use of <literal>+=</literal> so that if the variable is already set in the default <filename>make.conf</filename> its content will not be overwritten.
Pruning no Longer Needed Distfiles
<application>Poudriere</application> comes with a built-in mechanism to remove outdated distfiles that are no longer used by any port of a given tree. The command
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>poudriere distclean -p <replaceable>portstree</replaceable></userinput>
will scan the distfiles folder, <varname>DISTFILES_CACHE</varname> in <filename>poudriere.conf</filename>, versus the ports tree given by the <literal>-p <replaceable>portstree</replaceable></literal> argument and prompt for removal of those distfiles. To skip the prompt and remove all unused files unconditionally, the <literal>-y</literal> argument can be added:
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>poudriere distclean -p <replaceable>portstree</replaceable> -y</userinput>
Upgrading a Port
When a port is not the most recent version available from the authors, update the local working copy of <filename>/usr/ports</filename>. The port might have already been updated to the new version.
When working with more than a few ports, it will probably be easier to use <application>Subversion</application> to keep the whole ports collection up-to-date, as described in the <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/ports-using.html">Handbook</link>. This will have the added benefit of tracking all the port's dependencies.
The next step is to see if there is an update already pending. To do this, there are two options. There is a searchable interface to the <link xlink:href="https://bugs.freebsd.org/search/">FreeBSD Problem Report (PR) or bug database</link>. Select <literal>Ports &amp; Packages</literal> in the <literal>Product</literal> multiple select menu, and enter the name of the port in the <literal>Summary</literal> field.
However, sometimes people forget to put the name of the port into the Summary field in an unambiguous fashion. In that case, try searching in the <literal>Comment</literal> field in the <literal>Detailled Bug Information</literal> section, or try the <link linkend="portsmon">FreeBSD Ports Monitoring System</link> (also known as <literal>portsmon</literal>). This system attempts to classify port PRs by portname. To search for PRs about a particular port, use the <link xlink:href="http://portsmon.FreeBSD.org/portoverview.py">Overview of One Port</link>.
If there is no pending PR, the next step is to send an email to the port's maintainer, as shown by <command>make maintainer</command>. That person may already be working on an upgrade, or have a reason to not upgrade the port right now (because of, for example, stability problems of the new version), and there is no need to duplicate their work. Note that unmaintained ports are listed with a maintainer of <literal>ports@FreeBSD.org</literal>, which is just the general ports mailing list, so sending mail there probably will not help in this case.
If the maintainer asks you to do the upgrade or there is no maintainer, then help out FreeBSD by preparing the update! Please do this by using the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>diff</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> command in the base system.
To create a suitable <command>diff</command> for a single patch, copy the file that needs patching to <filename><replaceable>something</replaceable>.orig</filename>, save the changes to <filename><replaceable>something</replaceable></filename> and then create the patch:
<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>diff -u <replaceable>something</replaceable>.orig <replaceable>something</replaceable> &gt; something.diff</userinput>
Otherwise, either use the <command>svn diff</command> method (<xref linkend="svn-diff"/>) or copy the contents of the port to an entire different directory and use the result of the recursive <citerefentry><refentrytitle>diff</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> output of the new and old ports directories (for example, if the modified port directory is called <filename>superedit</filename> and the original is in our tree as <filename>superedit.bak</filename>, then save the result of <command>diff -ruN superedit.bak superedit</command>). Either unified or context diff is fine, but port committers generally prefer unified diffs. Note the use of the <literal>-N</literal> option—this is the accepted way to force diff to properly deal with the case of new files being added or old files being deleted. Before sending us the diff, please examine the output to make sure all the changes make sense. (In particular, make sure to first clean out the work directories with <command>make clean</command>).
If some files have been added, copied, moved, or removed, add this information to the problem report so that the committer picking up the patch will know what <citerefentry><refentrytitle>svn</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> commands to run.
To simplify common operations with patch files, use <command>make makepatch</command> as described in <xref linkend="slow-patch"/>. Other tools exists, like <filename>/usr/ports/Tools/scripts/patchtool.py</filename>. Before using it, please read <filename>/usr/ports/Tools/scripts/README.patchtool</filename>.
If the port is unmaintained, and you are actively using it, please consider volunteering to become its maintainer. FreeBSD has over 4000 ports without maintainers, and this is an area where more volunteers are always needed. (For a detailed description of the responsibilities of maintainers, refer to the section in the <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/developers-handbook/policies.html#POLICIES-MAINTAINER">Developer's Handbook</link>.)
To submit the diff, use the <link xlink:href="https://bugs.freebsd.org/submit/">bug submit form</link> (product <literal>Ports &amp; Packages</literal>, component <literal>Individual Port(s)</literal>). Always include the category with the port name, followed by colon, and brief descripton of the issue. Examples: <literal><replaceable>category/portname</replaceable>: <replaceable>add FOO option</replaceable></literal>; <literal> <replaceable>category/portname</replaceable>: <replaceable>Update to X.Y</replaceable></literal>. Please mention any added or deleted files in the message, as they have to be explicitly specified to <citerefentry><refentrytitle>svn</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> when doing a commit. Do not compress or encode the diff.
Before submitting the bug, review the <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/problem-reports/pr-writing.html"> Writing the problem report</link> section in the Problem Reports article. It contains far more information about how to write useful problem reports.
If the upgrade is motivated by security concerns or a serious fault in the currently committed port, please notify the Ports Management Team <email>portmgr@FreeBSD.org</email> to request immediate rebuilding and redistribution of the port's package. Unsuspecting users of <command>pkg</command> will otherwise continue to install the old version via <command>pkg install</command> for several weeks.
Please use <citerefentry><refentrytitle>diff</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> or <command>svn diff</command> to create updates to existing ports. Other formats include the whole file and make it impossible to see just what has changed. When diffs are not included, the entire update might be ignored.
Now that all of that is done, read about how to keep up-to-date in <xref linkend="keeping-up"/>.
Using <application>Subversion</application> to Make Patches
When possible, please submit a <citerefentry><refentrytitle>svn</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> diff. They are easier to handle than diffs between <quote>new and old</quote> directories. It is easier to see what has changed, and to update the diff if something was modified in the Ports Collection since the work on it began, or if the committer asks for something to be fixed. Also, a patch generated with <command>svn diff</command> can be easily applied with <command>svn patch</command> and will save some time to the committer.
<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>cd ~/my_wrkdir</userinput> <co xml:id="my-wrkdir"/>
<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>svn co <replaceable>https://svn.FreeBSD.org</replaceable>/ports/head/dns/pdnsd</userinput> <co xml:id="svn-FreeBSD-org"/>
<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>cd ~/my_wrkdir/pdnsd</userinput>
This can be anywhere, of course. Building ports is not limited to within <filename>/usr/ports/</filename>.
<link xlink:href="https://svn.FreeBSD.org/">svn.FreeBSD.org</link> is the FreeBSD public <application>Subversion</application> server. See <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/svn.html#svn-mirrors">Subversion mirror sites</link> for more information.

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Source string comment
(itstool) path: chapter/para
Flags
read-only
Source string location
book.translate.xml:19726
String age
a year ago
Source string age
a year ago
Translation file
books/porters-handbook.pot, string 4106