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Chinese (Simplified) (zh_CN) This component is linked to the FreeBSD Doc/articles_bsdl-gpl repository. BSD-2-Clause-FreeBSD 99% 6 735 3,689 9
Chinese (Traditional) (zh_TW) This component is linked to the FreeBSD Doc/articles_bsdl-gpl repository. BSD-2-Clause-FreeBSD 0% 12,212 254,554
English This translation is used for source strings. This component is linked to the FreeBSD Doc/articles_bsdl-gpl repository. BSD-2-Clause-FreeBSD 10,913
Norwegian Bokmål This component is linked to the FreeBSD Doc/articles_bsdl-gpl repository. BSD-2-Clause-FreeBSD 0% 12,169 253,641
Persian This component is linked to the FreeBSD Doc/articles_bsdl-gpl repository. BSD-2-Clause-FreeBSD 1% 11,980 250,130 5 1
Portuguese (Brazil) This component is linked to the FreeBSD Doc/articles_bsdl-gpl repository. BSD-2-Clause-FreeBSD 97% 299 11,396 3,193
Spanish This component is linked to the FreeBSD Doc/articles_bsdl-gpl repository. BSD-2-Clause-FreeBSD 0% 12,170 253,745 18
Turkish (tr_TR) This component is linked to the FreeBSD Doc/articles_bsdl-gpl repository. BSD-2-Clause-FreeBSD 13% 10,594 207,616 6,335
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Translation license BSD-2-Clause-FreeBSD
Filemaskbooks/*/handbook.po
Number of strings 97,696
Number of words 2,036,432
Number of characters 17,696,056
Number of languages 8
Number of source strings 12,212
Number of source words 254,554
Number of source characters 2,212,007
Searching by shell globs, regular expressions, exact match, by description, or any other field in the repository database is also supported by <command>pkg search</command>. After installing <package>ports-mgmt/pkg</package> or <package>ports-mgmt/pkg-devel</package>, see <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pkg-search</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> for more details.
<command>pkg search</command>支持使用 Shell 通配符(globs)、正规表示法则表达式、描述或文件库中的其他其他内容。在安装<package>ports-mgmt/pkg</package>或<package>ports-mgmt/pkg-devel</package>之后,可参考<citerefentry><refentrytitle>pkg-search</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> 以取得更多详细信息。
3 days ago
<emphasis><varname>vfs.zfs.top_maxinflight</varname></emphasis> - Maxmimum number of outstanding I/Os per top-level <link linkend="zfs-term-vdev">vdev</link>. Limits the depth of the command queue to prevent high latency. The limit is per top-level vdev, meaning the limit applies to each <link linkend="zfs-term-vdev-mirror">mirror</link>, <link linkend="zfs-term-vdev-raidz">RAID-Z</link>, or other vdev independently. This value can be adjusted at any time with <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sysctl</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>.
<emphasis><varname>vfs.zfs.top_maxinflight</varname></emphasis> - 每个顶层<link linkend="zfs-term-vdev">vdev</link>的最大未决I/O数量。限制命令队列的深度以防止高延迟。这个限制是按顶层vdev设置的,也就是说这个限制适用于每个<link linkend="zfs-term-vdev-mirror">mirror</link>,<link linkend="zfs-term-vdev-raidz">RAID-Z</link>,或者其他vdev。这个值可以通过<citerefentry><refentrytitle>sysctl</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>随时调整。
2 weeks ago
Transitioning from userland <citerefentry><refentrytitle>natd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> to in-kernel <acronym>NAT</acronym> might seem seamless at first but there is small catch. When using the GENERIC kernel, <application>IPFW</application> will load the <filename>libalias.ko</filename> kernel module, when <literal>firewall_nat_enable</literal> is enabled in <filename>rc.conf</filename>. The <filename>libalias.ko</filename> kernel module only provides basic <acronym>NAT</acronym> functionality, whereas the userland implementation <citerefentry><refentrytitle>natd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> has all <acronym>NAT</acronym> functionality available in its userland library without any extra configuration. All functionality refers to the following kernel modules that can additionally be loaded when needed besides the standard <filename>libalias.ko</filename> kernel module: <filename>alias_cuseeme.ko</filename>, <filename>alias_ftp.ko</filename>, <filename>alias_bbt.ko</filename>, <filename>skinny.ko</filename>, <filename>irc.ko</filename>, <filename>alias_pptp.ko</filename> and <filename>alias_smedia.ko</filename> using the <literal>kld_list</literal> directive in <filename>rc.conf</filename>. If a custom kernel is used, the full functionality of the userland library can be compiled in, in the kernel, using the <option>options LIBALIAS</option>.
从用户态<citerefentry><refentrytitle>natd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>到 in-kernel <acronym>NAT</acronym>的过渡最初可能看起来是无缝的,不过这是小问题。使用 GENERIC 内核时,<application>IPFW</application>将加载<filename>libalias.ko</filename>内核模块,当<filename>rc.conf</filename>中的<literal>firewall_nat_enable</literal>启用时。虽然,加载的<filename>libalias.ko</filename>模块只提供基本的<acronym>NAT</acronym>功能,而 userland 实现<citerefentry><refentrytitle>natd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>具有所有可用的功能,而无需从其用户库进行任何额外的配置。所有功能都是指在标准<filename>libalias.ko</filename>内核模块之外,在需要时可以额外加载的以下内核模块:<filename>alias_cuseeme.ko</filename>,<filename>alias_ftp.ko</filename>,<filename>alias_bbt.ko</filename>,<filename>skinny.ko</filename>,<filename>irc.ko</filename>,<filename>alias_pptp.ko</filename>,<filename>alias_smedia.ko</filename>使用<filename>rc.conf</filename>中的 <literal>kld_list</literal>指令来模拟用户实现的全部功能。如果使用自定义内核,则可以使用<option>option LIBALIAS</option>。
2 weeks ago
A <acronym>NAT</acronym> instance will also be configured. It is possible to have multiple <acronym>NAT</acronym> instances each with their own configuration. For this example only one <acronym>NAT</acronym> instance is needed, <acronym>NAT</acronym> instance number 1. The configuration can take a few options such as: <option>if</option> which indicates the public interface, <option>same_ports</option> which takes care that alliased ports and local port numbers are mapped the same, <option>unreg_only</option> will result in only unregistered (private) address spaces to be processed by the <acronym>NAT</acronym> instance, and <option>reset</option> which will help to keep a functioning <acronym>NAT</acronym> instance even when the public <acronym>IP</acronym> address of the <application>IPFW</application> machine changes. For all possible options that can be passed to a single <acronym>NAT</acronym> instance configuration consult <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ipfw</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>. When configuring a stateful <acronym>NAT</acronym>ing firewall, it is neseccary to allow translated packets to be reinjected in the firewall for further processing. This can be achieved by disabling <option>one_pass</option> behavior at the start of the firewall script.
还将配置<acronym>NAT</acronym>实例。使用 in-kernel <acronym>NAT,</acronym>可以有多个<acronym>NAT</acronym>实例,每个实例都有自己的配置。但是,对于此示例,只需要一个 NAT 实例。对于此示例,只需要一个<acronym>NAT</acronym>实例。<acronym>NAT</acronym>实例编号为 1。配置需要一些参数和标志,例如:<option>if</option>表示公共接口,<option>same_ports</option>注意所有端口和本地端口号映射相同,<option>unreg_only</option>将导致仅由<acronym>NAT</acronym>实例处理未注册的(私有)地址空间,以及 <option>reset</option>,这将有助于保持一个正常运行的<acronym>NAT</acronym>实例,即使<application>IPFW</application>计算机的公共<acronym>IP</acronym>地址发生更改。对于可以传递到单个<acronym>NAT</acronym>实例配置的所有可能选项,请参阅<citerefentry><refentrytitle>ipfw</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>。此外,由于当配置有状态<acronym>NAT</acronym>防火墙的性质,时,有必要允许将转换后的数据包重新注入防火墙以进行进一步处理,这可以通过在防火墙脚本开头前添加 <option>one_pass</option>禁用标志来实现。
2 weeks ago
With in-kernel <acronym>NAT</acronym> it is necessary to disable TCP segmentation offloading (<acronym>TSO</acronym>) due to the architecture of <citerefentry><refentrytitle>libalias</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum></citerefentry>, a library implemented as a kernel module to provide the in-kernel <acronym>NAT</acronym> facility of <application>IPFW</application>. <acronym>TSO</acronym> can be disabled on a per network interface basis using <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ifconfig</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> or on a system wide basis using <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sysctl</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>. To disable <acronym>TSO</acronym> system wide, the following must be set it <filename>/etc/sysctl.conf</filename>:
当规则集包含有状态规则时,<acronym>NAT</acronym>规则的定位至关重要,并且使用<literal>skipto</literal>操作。<literal>skipto</literal>操作需要一个规则编号,以便它知道要跳转到哪个规则。此外,由于<citerefentry><refentrytitle>libalias</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum></citerefentry>的体系结构,作为用于<application>IPFW</application>的 in-kernel <acronym>NAT</acronym>工具的内核模块实现的库,有必要禁用 TCP 分段卸载,(<acronym>TSO</acronym>)。通过使用<citerefentry><refentrytitle>ifconfig</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>为某个网口禁用 TSO 或使用<citerefentry><refentrytitle>sysctl</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>。在系统范围内,可以基于每个网络接口 为系统内的所有网卡禁用 <acronym>TSO</acronym>。要在系统范围禁用<acronym>TSO</acronym>,必须在<filename>/etc/sysctl.conf</filename>中设置以下内容:
2 weeks ago
<application><trademark>VirtualBox</trademark></application> is an actively developed, complete virtualization package, that is available for most operating systems including <trademark class="registered">Windows</trademark>, <trademark class="registered">Mac OS</trademark>, <trademark class="registered">Linux</trademark> and FreeBSD. It is equally capable of running <trademark class="registered">Windows</trademark> or <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark>-like guests. It is released as open source software, but with closed-source components available in a separate extension pack. These components include support for USB 2.0 devices. More information may be found on the <link xlink:href="http://www.virtualbox.org/wiki/Downloads"><quote>Downloads</quote> page of the <application><trademark>VirtualBox</trademark></application> wiki</link>. Currently, these extensions are not available for FreeBSD.
<application><trademark>VirtualBox</trademark></application>是一套积极开发、完整的虚拟化套件,适用大多数操作系统,包含<trademark class="registered">Windows</trademark>,<trademark class="registered">Mac OS</trademark>,<trademark class="registered">Linux</trademark>与FreeBSD,它同样能够执行类<trademark class="registered">Windows</trademark>或<trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark>的客端系统。它是以开源软件的方式发布,但闭源元件可独立在扩充包中使用,这些元件包含对USB 2.0装置的支持。更多信息可在<link xlink:href="http://www.virtualbox.org/wiki/Downloads"><application><trademark>VirtualBox</trademark></application> wiki的<quote>Downloads</quote>页面</link>。目前,这些扩充套件并不支持FreeBSD。
2 weeks ago
The <filename>kmem</filename> address space can be increased on all FreeBSD architectures. On a test system with 1 GB of physical memory, success was achieved with these options added to <filename>/boot/loader.conf</filename>, and the system restarted:
在所有的FreeBSD 架构上均可增加<filename>kmem</filename> 位址空间,经测试在一个1 GB 实体内存的测试系统上,加入以下选项到<filename>/boot/loader.conf</filename>,重新开启系统,可成功设定:
2 weeks ago
This expands the kernel address space, allowing the <varname>vm.kvm_size</varname> tunable to be pushed beyond the currently imposed limit of 1 GB, or the limit of 2 GB for <acronym>PAE</acronym>. To find the most suitable value for this option, divide the desired address space in megabytes by four. In this example, it is <literal>512</literal> for 2 GB.
这个选项会增加核心位址空间,允许调整 <varname>vm.kvm_size</varname> 超出目前的 1 GB 限制或在 <acronym>PAE</acronym> 的 2 GB 限制.要找到这个选项最合适的数值,可以将想要的位址空间换算成 MB 然后除以 4,在本例中,以 2 GB 计算后即为 <literal>512</literal>。
2 weeks ago
As a bare minimum, the total system memory should be at least one gigabyte. The amount of recommended <acronym>RAM</acronym> depends upon the size of the pool and which <acronym>ZFS</acronym> features are used. A general rule of thumb is 1 GB of RAM for every 1 TB of storage. If the deduplication feature is used, a general rule of thumb is 5 GB of RAM per TB of storage to be deduplicated. While some users successfully use <acronym>ZFS</acronym> with less <acronym>RAM</acronym>, systems under heavy load may panic due to memory exhaustion. Further tuning may be required for systems with less than the recommended RAM requirements.
最低需求,总系统内存应至少有 1 GB,建议的 <acronym>RAM</acronym> 量需视存储池的大小以及使用的 <acronym>ZFS</acronym> 功能而定。一般的经验法则是每 1 TB 的储存空间需要 1 GB 的 RAM,若有开启去重复的功能,一般的经验法则是每 1 TB 的要做去重复的储存空间需要 5 GB 的 RAM。虽然有部份使用者成功使用较少的 <acronym>RAM</acronym> 来运作 <acronym>ZFS</acronym>,但系统在负载较重时有可能会因为记忆用耗而导致当机,对于要使用低于建议 RAM 需求量来运作的系统可能会需要更进一步的调校。
2 weeks ago
Forcing 4 KB blocks is also useful on pools where disk upgrades are planned. Future disks are likely to use 4 KB sectors, and <varname>ashift</varname> values cannot be changed after a pool is created.
强制使用 4KB 块在计划进行磁盘升级的池中也很有用。将来的磁盘可能会使用 4 KB 扇区,并且在创建池后无法更改<varname>ashift</varname>值。
2 weeks ago
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