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FreeBSD manages all of this with a layered VM Object model. The original binary program file winds up being the lowest VM Object layer. A copy-on-write layer is pushed on top of that to hold those pages which had to be copied from the original file. If the program modifies a data page belonging to the original file the VM system takes a fault and makes a copy of the page in the higher layer. When a process forks, additional VM Object layers are pushed on. This might make a little more sense with a fairly basic example. A <function>fork()</function> is a common operation for any *BSD system, so this example will consider a program that starts up, and forks. When the process starts, the VM system creates an object layer, let's call this A:
FreeBSD gestinoa todo esto con un modelo de Objetos de Memoria Virtual en capas. El fichero del programa binario original termina siendo la capa de Objetos de Memoria Virtual más baja. Una capa copy-on-write se sitúa encima de ella para mantener aquellas páginas que han sido copiadas del fichero original. Si el programa modifica una página de datos que pertenece al fichero original el sistema de Memoria Virtual generarecibe un fallo de página y hace una copia de la página en la capa superior. Cuando un proceso bifurca, se empujan nuevas capas de Objetos de Memoria Virtual. Esto puede cobrar más sentido con un ejemplo bastante básico. Un <function>fork()</function> es una operación común para cualquier sistema *BSD, así que este ejemplo considerará un programa que arranca, y bifurca. Cuando el proceso arranca, el sistema de Memoria Virtual crea una capa de objetos, llamémosla A:
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FreeBSD: The master archive of the FreeBSD <acronym>FTP</acronym> server.
FreeBSD:FreeBSD FTP<acronym>FTP</acronym> 服务器的主要存档。
yesterday
This bridge has a spanning tree ID of <literal>00:01:02:4b:d4:50</literal> and a priority of <literal>32768</literal>. As the <literal>root id</literal> is the same, it indicates that this is the root bridge for the tree.
这个桥接的生成树ID为<literal>00:01:02:02:4B:D4b:d4:50</literal>,优先级为<literal>32768</literal>。由于<literal>root id</literal>是相同的,这表明这是该树的根桥。
yesterday
In this example, <citerefentry><refentrytitle>rfcomm_pppd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> is used to open a connection to a remote device with a <literal>BD_ADDR</literal> of <literal>00:80:37:29:19:a4</literal> on a <acronym>DUN</acronym> <acronym>RFCOMM</acronym> channel:
在本例中,<citerefentry><refentrytitle>rfcomm_pppd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>用于在 <acronym>DUN</acronym> <acronym>RFCOMM</acronym>通道上打开一个到远程设备的连接,其<literal>BD_ADDR</literal>为<literal>00:80:37:29:19:19:a4</literal>:
yesterday
There are many lower-level debugging tools. Debugging messages can be enabled in the 802.11 protocol support layer using <citerefentry><refentrytitle>wlandebug</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>. For example, to enable console messages related to scanning for access points and the 802.11 protocol handshakes required to arrange communication:
除此之外还有许多其它的底层调试工具。 您可以使用 <filename>/usr/src/tools/tools/net80211</filename> 中的 <command>wlandebug</command> citerefentry><refentrytitle>wlandebug</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>命令来启用 802.11 协议支持层的调试功能。例如,要启用与扫描接入点和安排通信所需的 802.11 协议握手相关的控制台消息:请执行以下操作:
yesterday
Note that I say <quote>reasonably</quote> contiguous rather than simply <quote>contiguous</quote>. From the point of view of a 128K direct mapped cache, the physical address 0 is the same as the physical address 128K. So two side-by-side pages in your virtual address space may wind up being offset 128K and offset 132K in physical memory, but could also easily be offset 128K and offset 4K in physical memory and still retain the same cache performance characteristics. So page-coloring does <emphasis>not</emphasis> have to assign truly contiguous pages of physical memory to contiguous pages of virtual memory, it just needs to make sure it assigns contiguous pages from the point of view of cache performance and operation.
Nótese que digo <quote>razonablemente</quote> contiguas en lugar de simplemente <quote>contiguas</quote>. Desde el punto de vista de una caché de mapeo directo de 128K, la dirección física 0 es la misma que la dirección física 128K. De modo que dos páginas una al lado de la otra en tu espacio de memoria virtual podrían terminar siendo el desplazamiento 128K y 132K en memoria física, pero podría fácilmente ser también el desplazamiento 128K y 4K en memoria física y mantener todavía las mismas características de rendimiento de la caché. Así que el coloreado de páginas <emphasis>no</emphasis> tiene que asignar páginas de memoria física realmente contiguas a páginas de memoria virtual que sí lo son, sólo necesita asegurarse de que asigna páginas contiguas desde el punto de vista del rendimiento y la operativa de la caché.
yesterday
This is what Page coloring does. Instead of assigning <emphasis>random</emphasis> physical pages to virtual addresses, which may result in non-optimal cache performance, Page coloring assigns <emphasis>reasonably-contiguous</emphasis> physical pages to virtual addresses. Thus programs can be written under the assumption that the characteristics of the underlying hardware cache are the same for their virtual address space as they would be if the program had been run directly in a physical address space.
Esto es lo que hace el coloreado de páginas. En lugar de asignar páginas físicas de forma <emphasis>aleatoria</emphasis>, lo que podría resultar en un rendimiento de caché no óptimo, el coloreado de Páginas asigna páginas físicas <emphasis>razonablemente contiguas</emphasis> a direcciones virtuales. Por lo tanto los programas se pueden escribir asumiendo que las características de la caché hardware subyacente son las mismas para el espacio de direcciones virtuales a como serían si el programa estuviera ejecutándose directamente en un espacio de direcciones físicas.
yesterday
A program normally assumes that two side-by-side pages will be optimally cached. That is, that you can access data objects in both pages without having them blow away each other's cache entry. But this is only true if the physical pages underlying the virtual address space are contiguous (insofar as the cache is concerned).
Un programa normalmente asume que dos páginas que están una al lado de la otra serán cacheadas de forma óptima. Es decir, que puedes acceder a objetos de datos en ambas páginas sin tener que destrozar las entradas de caché de la otra página. Pero esto sólo es cierto si las páginas físicas bajo el espacio de memoria virtual son contiguas (en lo que a la caché se refiere).
yesterday
But in the <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark> world you are dealing with virtual address spaces, not physical address spaces. Any program you write will see the virtual address space given to it. The actual <emphasis>physical</emphasis> pages underlying that virtual address space are not necessarily physically contiguous! In fact, you might have two pages that are side by side in a processes address space which wind up being at offset 0 and offset 128K in <emphasis>physical</emphasis> memory.
Pero en el mundo <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark> tú tratas con espacios de direcciones virtuales, no espacios de direcciones físicas. Cualquier programa que escribas verá un espacio de direcciones virtuales que se le ha proporcionado. Las páginas virtuales<emphasis>reales</emphasis> que están por debajo del espacio de direcciones virtuales ¡no están necesariamente contiguas físicamente! De hecho, podrías tener dos páginas que están pegadas una a la otra en el espacio de direcciones del proceso y que terminan estando en el desplazamiento 0 y el desplazamiento 128K en memoria<emphasis>física</emphasis>.
yesterday
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