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articles_cups This component is linked to the FreeBSD Doc/articles_bsdl-gpl repository. This translation does not yet exist. BSD-2-Clause-FreeBSD 0%
articles_serial-uart This component is linked to the FreeBSD Doc/articles_bsdl-gpl repository. This translation does not yet exist. BSD-2-Clause-FreeBSD 0%
articles_building-products This component is linked to the FreeBSD Doc/articles_bsdl-gpl repository. This translation does not yet exist. BSD-2-Clause-FreeBSD 0%
articles_committers-guide This component is linked to the FreeBSD Doc/articles_bsdl-gpl repository. This translation does not yet exist. BSD-2-Clause-FreeBSD 0%
articles_contributing This component is linked to the FreeBSD Doc/articles_bsdl-gpl repository. This translation does not yet exist. BSD-2-Clause-FreeBSD 0%
articles_contributors This component is linked to the FreeBSD Doc/articles_bsdl-gpl repository. This translation does not yet exist. BSD-2-Clause-FreeBSD 0%
articles_explaining-bsd This component is linked to the FreeBSD Doc/articles_bsdl-gpl repository. This translation does not yet exist. BSD-2-Clause-FreeBSD 0%
articles_freebsd-questions This component is linked to the FreeBSD Doc/articles_bsdl-gpl repository. This translation does not yet exist. BSD-2-Clause-FreeBSD 0%
articles_ipsec-must This component is linked to the FreeBSD Doc/articles_bsdl-gpl repository. This translation does not yet exist. BSD-2-Clause-FreeBSD 0%
articles_mailing-list-faq This component is linked to the FreeBSD Doc/articles_bsdl-gpl repository. This translation does not yet exist. BSD-2-Clause-FreeBSD 0%
Searching by shell globs, regular expressions, exact match, by description, or any other field in the repository database is also supported by <command>pkg search</command>. After installing <package>ports-mgmt/pkg</package> or <package>ports-mgmt/pkg-devel</package>, see <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pkg-search</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> for more details.
<command>pkg search</command>支持使用 Shell 通配符(globs)、正规表示法则表达式、描述或文件库中的其他其他内容。在安装<package>ports-mgmt/pkg</package>或<package>ports-mgmt/pkg-devel</package>之后,可参考<citerefentry><refentrytitle>pkg-search</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> 以取得更多详细信息。
6 days ago
<emphasis><varname>vfs.zfs.top_maxinflight</varname></emphasis> - Maxmimum number of outstanding I/Os per top-level <link linkend="zfs-term-vdev">vdev</link>. Limits the depth of the command queue to prevent high latency. The limit is per top-level vdev, meaning the limit applies to each <link linkend="zfs-term-vdev-mirror">mirror</link>, <link linkend="zfs-term-vdev-raidz">RAID-Z</link>, or other vdev independently. This value can be adjusted at any time with <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sysctl</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>.
<emphasis><varname>vfs.zfs.top_maxinflight</varname></emphasis> - 每个顶层<link linkend="zfs-term-vdev">vdev</link>的最大未决I/O数量。限制命令队列的深度以防止高延迟。这个限制是按顶层vdev设置的,也就是说这个限制适用于每个<link linkend="zfs-term-vdev-mirror">mirror</link>,<link linkend="zfs-term-vdev-raidz">RAID-Z</link>,或者其他vdev。这个值可以通过<citerefentry><refentrytitle>sysctl</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>随时调整。
2 weeks ago
Transitioning from userland <citerefentry><refentrytitle>natd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> to in-kernel <acronym>NAT</acronym> might seem seamless at first but there is small catch. When using the GENERIC kernel, <application>IPFW</application> will load the <filename>libalias.ko</filename> kernel module, when <literal>firewall_nat_enable</literal> is enabled in <filename>rc.conf</filename>. The <filename>libalias.ko</filename> kernel module only provides basic <acronym>NAT</acronym> functionality, whereas the userland implementation <citerefentry><refentrytitle>natd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> has all <acronym>NAT</acronym> functionality available in its userland library without any extra configuration. All functionality refers to the following kernel modules that can additionally be loaded when needed besides the standard <filename>libalias.ko</filename> kernel module: <filename>alias_cuseeme.ko</filename>, <filename>alias_ftp.ko</filename>, <filename>alias_bbt.ko</filename>, <filename>skinny.ko</filename>, <filename>irc.ko</filename>, <filename>alias_pptp.ko</filename> and <filename>alias_smedia.ko</filename> using the <literal>kld_list</literal> directive in <filename>rc.conf</filename>. If a custom kernel is used, the full functionality of the userland library can be compiled in, in the kernel, using the <option>options LIBALIAS</option>.
从用户态<citerefentry><refentrytitle>natd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>到 in-kernel <acronym>NAT</acronym>的过渡最初可能看起来是无缝的,不过这是小问题。使用 GENERIC 内核时,<application>IPFW</application>将加载<filename>libalias.ko</filename>内核模块,当<filename>rc.conf</filename>中的<literal>firewall_nat_enable</literal>启用时。虽然,加载的<filename>libalias.ko</filename>模块只提供基本的<acronym>NAT</acronym>功能,而 userland 实现<citerefentry><refentrytitle>natd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>具有所有可用的功能,而无需从其用户库进行任何额外的配置。所有功能都是指在标准<filename>libalias.ko</filename>内核模块之外,在需要时可以额外加载的以下内核模块:<filename>alias_cuseeme.ko</filename>,<filename>alias_ftp.ko</filename>,<filename>alias_bbt.ko</filename>,<filename>skinny.ko</filename>,<filename>irc.ko</filename>,<filename>alias_pptp.ko</filename>,<filename>alias_smedia.ko</filename>使用<filename>rc.conf</filename>中的 <literal>kld_list</literal>指令来模拟用户实现的全部功能。如果使用自定义内核,则可以使用<option>option LIBALIAS</option>。
2 weeks ago
A <acronym>NAT</acronym> instance will also be configured. It is possible to have multiple <acronym>NAT</acronym> instances each with their own configuration. For this example only one <acronym>NAT</acronym> instance is needed, <acronym>NAT</acronym> instance number 1. The configuration can take a few options such as: <option>if</option> which indicates the public interface, <option>same_ports</option> which takes care that alliased ports and local port numbers are mapped the same, <option>unreg_only</option> will result in only unregistered (private) address spaces to be processed by the <acronym>NAT</acronym> instance, and <option>reset</option> which will help to keep a functioning <acronym>NAT</acronym> instance even when the public <acronym>IP</acronym> address of the <application>IPFW</application> machine changes. For all possible options that can be passed to a single <acronym>NAT</acronym> instance configuration consult <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ipfw</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>. When configuring a stateful <acronym>NAT</acronym>ing firewall, it is neseccary to allow translated packets to be reinjected in the firewall for further processing. This can be achieved by disabling <option>one_pass</option> behavior at the start of the firewall script.
还将配置<acronym>NAT</acronym>实例。使用 in-kernel <acronym>NAT,</acronym>可以有多个<acronym>NAT</acronym>实例,每个实例都有自己的配置。但是,对于此示例,只需要一个 NAT 实例。对于此示例,只需要一个<acronym>NAT</acronym>实例。<acronym>NAT</acronym>实例编号为 1。配置需要一些参数和标志,例如:<option>if</option>表示公共接口,<option>same_ports</option>注意所有端口和本地端口号映射相同,<option>unreg_only</option>将导致仅由<acronym>NAT</acronym>实例处理未注册的(私有)地址空间,以及 <option>reset</option>,这将有助于保持一个正常运行的<acronym>NAT</acronym>实例,即使<application>IPFW</application>计算机的公共<acronym>IP</acronym>地址发生更改。对于可以传递到单个<acronym>NAT</acronym>实例配置的所有可能选项,请参阅<citerefentry><refentrytitle>ipfw</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>。此外,由于当配置有状态<acronym>NAT</acronym>防火墙的性质,时,有必要允许将转换后的数据包重新注入防火墙以进行进一步处理,这可以通过在防火墙脚本开头前添加 <option>one_pass</option>禁用标志来实现。
2 weeks ago
With in-kernel <acronym>NAT</acronym> it is necessary to disable TCP segmentation offloading (<acronym>TSO</acronym>) due to the architecture of <citerefentry><refentrytitle>libalias</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum></citerefentry>, a library implemented as a kernel module to provide the in-kernel <acronym>NAT</acronym> facility of <application>IPFW</application>. <acronym>TSO</acronym> can be disabled on a per network interface basis using <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ifconfig</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> or on a system wide basis using <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sysctl</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>. To disable <acronym>TSO</acronym> system wide, the following must be set it <filename>/etc/sysctl.conf</filename>:
当规则集包含有状态规则时,<acronym>NAT</acronym>规则的定位至关重要,并且使用<literal>skipto</literal>操作。<literal>skipto</literal>操作需要一个规则编号,以便它知道要跳转到哪个规则。此外,由于<citerefentry><refentrytitle>libalias</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum></citerefentry>的体系结构,作为用于<application>IPFW</application>的 in-kernel <acronym>NAT</acronym>工具的内核模块实现的库,有必要禁用 TCP 分段卸载,(<acronym>TSO</acronym>)。通过使用<citerefentry><refentrytitle>ifconfig</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>为某个网口禁用 TSO 或使用<citerefentry><refentrytitle>sysctl</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>。在系统范围内,可以基于每个网络接口 为系统内的所有网卡禁用 <acronym>TSO</acronym>。要在系统范围禁用<acronym>TSO</acronym>,必须在<filename>/etc/sysctl.conf</filename>中设置以下内容:
2 weeks ago
<application><trademark>VirtualBox</trademark></application> is an actively developed, complete virtualization package, that is available for most operating systems including <trademark class="registered">Windows</trademark>, <trademark class="registered">Mac OS</trademark>, <trademark class="registered">Linux</trademark> and FreeBSD. It is equally capable of running <trademark class="registered">Windows</trademark> or <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark>-like guests. It is released as open source software, but with closed-source components available in a separate extension pack. These components include support for USB 2.0 devices. More information may be found on the <link xlink:href="http://www.virtualbox.org/wiki/Downloads"><quote>Downloads</quote> page of the <application><trademark>VirtualBox</trademark></application> wiki</link>. Currently, these extensions are not available for FreeBSD.
<application><trademark>VirtualBox</trademark></application>是一套积极开发、完整的虚拟化套件,适用大多数操作系统,包含<trademark class="registered">Windows</trademark>,<trademark class="registered">Mac OS</trademark>,<trademark class="registered">Linux</trademark>与FreeBSD,它同样能够执行类<trademark class="registered">Windows</trademark>或<trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark>的客端系统。它是以开源软件的方式发布,但闭源元件可独立在扩充包中使用,这些元件包含对USB 2.0装置的支持。更多信息可在<link xlink:href="http://www.virtualbox.org/wiki/Downloads"><application><trademark>VirtualBox</trademark></application> wiki的<quote>Downloads</quote>页面</link>。目前,这些扩充套件并不支持FreeBSD。
2 weeks ago
The <filename>kmem</filename> address space can be increased on all FreeBSD architectures. On a test system with 1 GB of physical memory, success was achieved with these options added to <filename>/boot/loader.conf</filename>, and the system restarted:
在所有的FreeBSD 架构上均可增加<filename>kmem</filename> 位址空间,经测试在一个1 GB 实体内存的测试系统上,加入以下选项到<filename>/boot/loader.conf</filename>,重新开启系统,可成功设定:
2 weeks ago
This expands the kernel address space, allowing the <varname>vm.kvm_size</varname> tunable to be pushed beyond the currently imposed limit of 1 GB, or the limit of 2 GB for <acronym>PAE</acronym>. To find the most suitable value for this option, divide the desired address space in megabytes by four. In this example, it is <literal>512</literal> for 2 GB.
这个选项会增加核心位址空间,允许调整 <varname>vm.kvm_size</varname> 超出目前的 1 GB 限制或在 <acronym>PAE</acronym> 的 2 GB 限制.要找到这个选项最合适的数值,可以将想要的位址空间换算成 MB 然后除以 4,在本例中,以 2 GB 计算后即为 <literal>512</literal>。
2 weeks ago
As a bare minimum, the total system memory should be at least one gigabyte. The amount of recommended <acronym>RAM</acronym> depends upon the size of the pool and which <acronym>ZFS</acronym> features are used. A general rule of thumb is 1 GB of RAM for every 1 TB of storage. If the deduplication feature is used, a general rule of thumb is 5 GB of RAM per TB of storage to be deduplicated. While some users successfully use <acronym>ZFS</acronym> with less <acronym>RAM</acronym>, systems under heavy load may panic due to memory exhaustion. Further tuning may be required for systems with less than the recommended RAM requirements.
最低需求,总系统内存应至少有 1 GB,建议的 <acronym>RAM</acronym> 量需视存储池的大小以及使用的 <acronym>ZFS</acronym> 功能而定。一般的经验法则是每 1 TB 的储存空间需要 1 GB 的 RAM,若有开启去重复的功能,一般的经验法则是每 1 TB 的要做去重复的储存空间需要 5 GB 的 RAM。虽然有部份使用者成功使用较少的 <acronym>RAM</acronym> 来运作 <acronym>ZFS</acronym>,但系统在负载较重时有可能会因为记忆用耗而导致当机,对于要使用低于建议 RAM 需求量来运作的系统可能会需要更进一步的调校。
2 weeks ago
Forcing 4 KB blocks is also useful on pools where disk upgrades are planned. Future disks are likely to use 4 KB sectors, and <varname>ashift</varname> values cannot be changed after a pool is created.
强制使用 4KB 块在计划进行磁盘升级的池中也很有用。将来的磁盘可能会使用 4 KB 扇区,并且在创建池后无法更改<varname>ashift</varname>值。
2 weeks ago
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Percent Strings Words Chars
Total 12,212 254,554 2,212,007
Translated 99% 12,206 253,819 2,206,043
Needs editing 0% 1 182 1,327
Failing checks 30% 3,689 81,582 817,415

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Last change Sept. 25, 2020, 3:34 p.m.
Last author Hongyou Bai

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